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to XVII dynasty

XVIIIth Dynasty 1534 - 1292
( Thebes )

to XIX dynasty

In the history of Egypt the XVIIIth dynasty was golden era of prosperity and power of empire. Successors of Ahmose who expelled Hyksos’, carry on policy of expansions sending regularly war campaigns to Asia and expanding influences at south, in Nubia, gaining control over gold mines. Thus, the growing power of Egypt results in strong economical position of this country in contemporary world. Designed and performed with a flourish temples of gods’ cult, numerous fortresses in south and elaborated tombs in rock became symbol of that epoch. Under Amenhotep III the Egyptian empire grew in significance that will never happen again in future.  However the wealth in royal court leads finally to religious schism under Akhenaten and this is beginning of Egyptian empire’s downfall. Weakness of Amenhotep III’s successors is exploited by kingdoms of Asia and Nubia which throw off Egyptian yoke. Under Horemheb, the last pharaoh of this dynasty, this decay is stopped, however the empire faces long way to its reconstitution.
To view the transcription of kings titulary properly, please download and install transliteration font.


1534 - 1508
1570-1546 (Wente)
1569-1545 (Redford)
1554-1529 (Parker)
1552-1527 (Hornung)
1552-1526 (Grimal)
1550-1525 (Reeves, Arnold, von Beckerath, Shaw, Kitchen)
1549-1524 (Dodson)
1540-1525 (Malek)
1540-1515 (Aldred)

1539-1514 (Krauss, Murnane)
1530-1504 (Helck)
  Family TreeThe Mummy

Ahmose I ( Jahmes )

  • Hr aA-xprw , kA-m-wAst
  • twt-mswt
  • Ts-tAwi
  • nb-pHti-ra  (Sak47) , nb-pHwt(?)-ra
  • iaH-msi(w) (nxt) , Amosis (Man)

 nb-pHti-ra Nebpehtire (The Lord Of Strength Is Re)

 iaH-msi(w) Iahmesi (The Moon Is Born)

Son of queen Ahhotep and Seqenenre Tao II, probably brother of Kamose - the last rulers of dynasty XVII. Manetho assigned to him 25 years and 4 months of rule. Analysis of his mummy revealed that at the moment of death he was aged 35 so that Ahmose must have become a pharaoh at the very young age. This might be possible considering the early death of his father – Seqenenre, and brother – Kamose. In 18/19 year of rule (year 11 of Khamudi’s rule) he captured Awaris and the fortress Scharuhen in southern Palestine after 3 years-siege and thus completed act of restoration of Egyptian independence definitely expulsing Hyksos. He broadened vastly Egyptian borders making three successful campaigns in Nubia (after revolt of certain Aata) and one in Asia. Ahmose restored an office of viceroy of Kush and thus spread his own influence far to the south. He was brother and husband of queen Ahmose-Nefertari, the mother of Amenhotep I. Putative burial place – pyramid tomb in Biriabi, near Dra Abu el-Naga in Western Thebes, although quite recently it is being suggested that it might have been an unknown tomb KV32 in the Valley of the Kings. The king’s mummy was discovered in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari. At Abydos he was build pyramid-enotaph (false tomb).


1508 - 1484
1551-1524 (Wente)
1545-1525 (Redford)
1529-1509 (Parker)
1527-1506 (Hornung)
1526-1506 (Grimal)

1525-1504 (M
álek, Arnold, von Beckerath, Shaw)
1524-1503 (Dodson)
1515-1494 (Aldred)

1514-1493 (Krauss, Murnane)
1504-1483 (Helck)
  Family TreeThe Mummy

Amenhotep I ( Amenophis I )
  • Hr kA-wa.f-tAw
  • wa.f-tAw
  • qAH-rnpwt
  • Dsr-kA-ra
  • imn-Htp(w) (HqA-wAst) , imn-Htpw , Amenophis (Amenothes) (Man)

 Dsr-kA-ra Djoserkare (Holy Is The Soul[Ka] Of Re)

 imn-Htp(w) Amenhotep (Amun Is Satisfied)

Son of Ahmose by Ahmes-Nefertari. According to Manetho he ruled 20 years and 7 months. He came to the throne after premature death of prince Amenemhat, the heir to the throne. With his mother he was worshipped at the Theban necropoly until the Late Period. He made wars in Asia, Libya and Nubia from where he levied annual tributes. To him comes the credit of renewing many temples alongside the Nile. He started building of the temple at Karnak and Abydos, also temple of the goddess Nekhbet at El-Kab and temples at Uronarti in Nubia and Serabit el-Chadim at Synai. Tomb ANB near Dra el-Naga at Western Thebes or tomb KV39 at the Valley of the Kings. Mummy of the king, who diet at the age of 50 was found in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.


1484 - 1472
1525-1516 (Redford)
1524-1518 (Wente)
1509-1497 (Parker)
1506-1494 (Hornung)
1506-1493 (Grimal)

1504-1492 (M
álek, Arnold, von Beckerath, Shaw, Kitchen)
1503-1491 (Dodson)
1494-1482 (Aldred)

1493-1482 (Krauss, Murnane)
1483-1470 (Helck)
  Family TreeThe Mummy

Tuthmosis I
  • Hr kA nxt-n-ra , kA nxt mri-mAat , mri-ra xai-m-HDt
  • xai-m-nsrt aA-pHti , dwA-itm xai-xaw , iTi-tAw-nb(w)
  • nfr-rnpwt sanx-ibw , Hwi-pDt-A , aA-pHti wsr-xpSwAD-rnpwt-m-Hwt-aAt-mAat-
  • aA-xpr-kA-ra , (iri.n-ra , stp.n-ra , tit-imn , mri.n-ra , saA.n-ra)
  • DHwti-msi(w) , (xai-mi-ra , xai-nfrw) , Tethmosis (Man)

 aA-xpr-kA-ra Aakheperkare (Great Is The Soul Of Re)

DHwti-msi(w) Djehutymose (Born Of Djehuty [Thoth])

As Totmes I was probably not related to ruling family he acquired rights to the throne by marriage with king’s daughter, Ahmes who bore him daughter – Hatshepsut (the later queen). For the lack of male descendant from that marriage his heir to the throne became Totmes II, the son of queen Mutnofret. There are many discrepancies among Egyptologists as to length of Totmes’ rule. Opinion about 10-years rule is predominant. He vastly extended temple at Karnak. Due to campaign against Nubia at the beginning of his rule, the boundaries of Egypt moved as far as to Tombos, above the III cataract. In his 4 or 5 year of rule he managed to reach Euphrates in Asia and comemorized this victory with stele at Karkemish. In Karnak he started large-scale works, he also left traces of building activity at Elephantine, in Armant, Ombos, Abydos, Memfis and Nubia. His burial place was the first hypogeum in the Valley of  the Kings – KV38. Mummy of the ruler was moved by Hatshepsut’s order to her grave KV20 and then, after her death returned to its original burial place by order of Totmes III. Mummy found in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari wasascribed to Totmes I.


1472 - 1466
1518-1503 (Wente)
1516-1504 (Redford)
1497-1489 (Parker)
1494-1490 (Hornung)
1493-1479 (Grimal)

1492-1479 (M
álek, Arnold, von Beckerath, Shaw, Kitchen)
1491-1479 (Dodson)
1482-1479 (Krauss, Murnane, Aldred)
1470-1467 (Helck)
  Family TreeThe Mummy

Tuthmosis II
  • Hr kA nxt wsr-pHti
  • nTri-nsyt
  • sxm-xprw
  • aA-xpr-n-ra
  • DHwti-msi(w) (nfr-xaw , nDti-ra) , Chebron (Man)

 aA-xpr-n-ra Aakheperenre (Great Is The Form Of Re)

DHwti-msi(w)  Djehutymose (Born Of Djehuty [Thoth])

Son of Totmes I and Mutnofret, he became king after death of his father and his brothers Amenmose and Wadjmose. In German scholars’ opinion (W.Helck, R.Krauss, E.Hornung) Totmes II ruled only 3-4 years. Mantho’s Khebron was to rule 18 years but this seems to be overestimated. He married his own sister, Hatshepsut and thus legitimized the Totmes’ right to the throne. They had presumably two daughters - Neferure and Neferubiti. His son and successor, Totmes III, was born from his concubine Iset. He had to suppress revolts in Nubia at least twice during his rule, he sent military expedition to Asia as comemorized in inscription from Deir el-Bahari. Buildong activities of the ruler are apparent mainly in Thebes and Nubia. Burial place – tomb KV42 in the Valley of the Kings, that construction was merely begun. Mummy of the king was found in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.


1466 - 1444
1503-1483 (Wente)
1502-1482 (Redford)
1490-1468 (Hornung)
1489-1469 (Parker)

1479-1458 (Krauss)
1479/3-1458/7 (
von Beckerath)
1479-1457 (M
álek, Aldred, Kitchen)
1478-1458 (Murnane, Grimal)
1473-1458 (Arnold, Shaw)
1472-1457 (Dodson)
1467-1445 (Helck)
  Family Tree


  • Hr wsrt-kAw
  • wDAt-rnpwt
  • nTrt-xaw
  • mAat-kA-ra
  • HAt-Spswt (Hnmt-imn) , Amesses (Man) , Amensis (Man)

 mAat-kA-ra Maatkare (Truth Is The Soul Of Re)

HAt-Spswt (Hnmt-imn) Henemet Amun Hatshepsut (Who Loved Amun ; Foremost Of Noble Ladies)

Daughter of Tuthmosis I by queen Ahmes. She married her half-brother Tutmose II. She overtook rule after death of her husband as she would not let to pass it to her son-in-law Tuthmosis III, and reigned initially as regent of the young heir to the throne, then as pharaoh. Getting support from highly placed officials  (Senenmut, Hapuseneb, Djehuti, Nehsi) she managed to keep the young Tuthmosis well in the background and announced herself a male pharaoh. There is not agreement between scholars concerning the year of co-regency with Tuthmosis III when Hatshepsut had proclaimed herself pharaoh. Opinions of scholars diverge from 2 to 7 years. Change of the titulary in jar inscriptions dated to the year 7 point at longer period of co-regency. Inscription in Red Chapel of Hatshepsut  at Karnak, dated to year 2 suggest in turn shorter period. The inscription mentions that the Oracle of Amun hailed Hatshepsut the ruler of Egypt. During her reign she gave up policy of conquests in favor of trade development. Expeditions to the land of Punt (first one in the year 9 of her rule) resemble the policy of the Middle Kingdom. According to D.B.Redford and W.F.Reinecke at least six war or robbery campaigns in Nubia and Palestine could be also documented. She ordered to erect many monuments, numerous obelisks and magnificent mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari, the last one was being built almost 15 years. In works over this art of Egyptian architecture was heavily involved Senenmut, the queen’s architect, who had great influence on both the queen and her politics. She celebrated her Sed festival in year 15 of the rule. She died age 50 of bone's cancer. Her successor expunged any traces of her rule, after se died. He erased her cartouches and images of her from all buildings she erected.  Burial place – tomb KV20 in the Valley of the Kings, where Hatshepsut was buried although previously she had started to cut a tomb in wadi cliff face, west of Deir el-Bahari. Moreover, she ordered to move corpse of her father, Tuthmosis I, to her royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Her mummy founded in KV60, tomb of her nurse Sitre.

Mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari


1466 - 1412
1504-1452 (Redford)
1504-1450 (Wente, van Siclen)
1490-1436 (Hornung, Gardiner, Parker)
1479-1425 (von Beckerath, British Museum, Málek, Grimal, Murnane, Arnold, Shaw, Kitchen)
1479-1426 (Krauss)
1479-1425 (Aldred)
1479-1424 (Dodson)
1467-1413 (Helck)
  Family TreeThe Mummy

Tuthmosis III
  • Hr kA nxt xai-m-qAst
  • wAH-nsyt
  • Dsr-xaw
  • mn-xpr-ra , (mn-xpr-kA-ra)
  • DHwti-msi(w)
  • Hr xai-m-wAst , mri-ra qAi-HDt , qAi-HDt mri-ra , kA nxt mri-ra , kA nxt xai--m-mAat
  • wAH-nsyt-(mi-ra-m-pt) , sxai-mAat mri-tAwi , aA-Sfyt-m-tAw-nb(w) , Ssp-anx-n-itm xpr-m-xpri Htp-bAw-iwnw-Hr-mAat.f
  • Dsr-xaw (sxm-pHti) , hrw-Hr-nxtw Hwi-HqAw-xAswt-pHw-sw , hrw-Hr-nxtw , aA-xpS Hwi-pDt-A , sar-mAat sHtp-ra
  • mn-xpr-ra , (iwa-ra , iri.n-ra , mri.n-ra , stp.n-ra , saA.n-ra , nb-xpS , nxt-xpS , tit-ra)
  • DHwti-msi(w) (nfr-xpr , nfr-xprw , smA-xpr , HqA-mAat , HqA-iwnw , HqA-nTri , HqA-wAst , sA-itm-n-Ht.f msi.n.f-nbt-iwnt) , Misphris (Man) , Misphragmuthosis (Man)

 mn-xpr-ra Menkheperre (Established Is The Form Of Re)

DHwti-msi(w) Djehutymose  (Born Of Djehuty [Thoth])

Son of Totmes II and one of his wives – Iset. One of the most outstanding rulers of Egypt. He was one of the greatest conquerors in ancient times. Removed from power by his ambitious aunt he had to wait until her death before he put into action his own military plans. After he accessed the throne he assumed year of his father’s death – 1504 as start point of his own rule thus omitting Hatshepsut. He  considered her usurper. Removed by her from rule in presumably 2nd  year (or slightly later) of coregency he held priestly functions in temple. After Hatshepsut’ death he  took rule and ordered to destroy any traces of her illegal reign. In space of only 20 years he lead 16 war campaigns to Asia as precisely stated in Annales of Totmes at Karnak and numerous stele of victory as well as biographies of officers participating in the king’s expeditions. First expedition was organized within only few weeks after his accessing the throne and was aimed against coalition of Syrian princess. It  was headed by prince Kadesh. The eight expedition in 33 year of rule succeeded in crossing Euphrates and significant restricting of power of land of Mitanni. Next campaigns were mostly the fights with Mitannian army and kept Egyptian dominance in Asia. Egyptian empire extended from Euphrates in Asia to Napata in Upper Nubia. Apart from military activities there are known trade campaigns to Punt in year 33 of rule and to Sinai for turqoises. Building activities of the ruler, carried on with a flourish no less than war campaigns, is focused mainly in Karnak and West Thebes, also in many places of Upper Egypt and Nubya. Three years before his death he made his son, Amenhothep III the co-ruler. He died in the last day of seventh month of 53rd year of his rule. Burial place – tomb KV34 in Valley of  the Kings. The king’s mummy was found in the DB320 cache at Deir el-Bahari.


1414 - 1388
1454-1419 (Redford)
1453-1419 (Wente)
1439-1413 (Parker)
1438-1412 (Hornung)
1436-1413 (Gardiner)
1428-1397 (
von Beckerath)
1427-1401 (M
álek, Arnold)
1427-1400 (Shaw)
1427-1396 (Kitchen)
1427-1393 (Aldred)
1426-1400 (Krauss, Murnane)
1425-1401 (Grimal)
1424-1398 (Dodson)

1413-1388 (Helck)
1397-1387 (Vandersleyen)
  Family Tree

Amenhotep II ( Amenofis II )
  • Hr kA nxt (wr-pHti , aA-pHti , aA-pHti , spd-abwi , sxm-pHti)
  • wsr-fAw sxai-m-wAst , xai-xaw-m-ipt-swt
  • iTi-sxm.f-m-tAw-nb(w)
  • aA-xprw-ra
  • imn-Htp(w) , (nTr-HqA-iwnw , HqA-iwnw , nTr-HqA-wAst , HqA-wAst , nsw-HqA-wAst)

 aA-xprw-ra Aakheperure (Great Are The Forms Of Re)

imn-Htp(w) HqA-iwnw  Amenhotep Heqa Iunu (Amun Is Satisfied ; Lord Of Heliopolis)

 Son and successor of Tuthmosis III by queen Meritre, ruled alongside with his father as co-regent. In Manetho’s opinion he ruled 25 years and 10 months (Flavius). Warlike and cruel king, made numerous campaigns in Asia. The documents record unusual physical strength and sporting pursues – bowing, horse riding, rowing and running. Well known from successful punishing of revolting tribes., from his first Asiatic campaign he returned with seven conquered princesses. Six of them were hung down along the Theban walls, the seventh being hung down at Napata. As an effect of his campaign at the year 9 of his reign he captured unusually high number of prisoners – 80 thousand. It is believed that this number comprises all captives from his father’s, Tuthmosis III, campaigns. Amenhotep moved southern boundaries as far as to Napata where he built a fortress. Stela of Konosso records an expedition in the year 8 of his rule. He extended a temple at Karnak and erected funerary temple to the north of Ramesseum. He built also at heliopolis, Koptos, whole Theban nome and south, at el-Kab, on Elephantine, Sehel, Kalabsha, Buhen and more. Died aged 45-50.
Burial place - tomb KV35 at the Valley of the Kings, under Pinedjem I it became the cache for other royal mummies.


1388 - 1378
1419-1386 (Wente, van Siclen III)
1419-1410 (Redford)
1413-1405 (Gardiner)
1413-1403 (Parker)
1412-1402 (Hornung)
1401-1391 (M
álek, Arnold)
1401-1390 (Grimal)
1400-1390 (Krauss, Murnane, Shaw)
1398-1388 (Dodson)
1397-1388 (
von Beckerath)
1397-1387 (Vandersleyen)
1396-1386 (Kitchen)
1394-1384 (Aldred)

1388-1379 (Helck)
  Family TreeThe Mummy

Tuthmosis IV
  • Hr kA nxt (twt-xaw , mri-wAst , sA-itm)
  • Dd-nsyt mi-itm , sxm-xaw-m-tAw-nb(w)
  • wsr-xpS dr-pDt-A , Dd-...-mi-[Hr]Axti
  • mn-xprw-ra (mri.n-ra , iri.n-ra , stp.n-ra , HqA-mAat)
  • DHwti-msi(w) (xai-Haw , wsr-xaw) , Tuthmosis (Man)

 mn-xprw-ra Menkheperure (Established Of Forms Is Re)

DHwti-msi(w) Djehutymose (Born Of Djehuty [Thoth])

Son of Amenhotep II and queen Tia. According to Manetho he ruled 10 years. There exists some evidence pointing at disputes around his succession. He was not as warlike as his predecessors. There is known fact of expedition to Nubia and inspection in Asia in his 8 year of rule. He tried to run peaceful policy of dyplomacy that succeeded with treaty with Mitanni. His royal wife was Amenhotep III’s mother - Mutemweye, the daughter of Mitannian king Artatamas I. Foreign policy is characterized by accepting and bringing up Asiatic princes at Egyptian court that was helpful at maintaining healthy relationship between Egypt and Asia. Building activity is remarkable at Synai, Heliopolis, Giza, Memfis and Sakkara, as well as in Hermopolis, Abydos, Dendera and Theban district.Burial place – tomb KV43 at the Valley of the Kings. The king’s mummy was found in a  KV35 tomb-cache of Amenhotep II.


1378 - 1339
1410-1372 (Redford)
1403-1366 (Parker)
1402-1364 (Hornung)
1392-1354 (
von Beckerath)
1391-1353 (M
álek, Arnold)
1390-1353 (Krauss, Murnane)
1390-1352 (Grimal, Shaw)
1388-1348 (Dodson)
1386-1350 (Wente)
1386-1349 (Kitchen)
1384-1346 (Aldred)

1379-1340 (Helck)
  Family TreeThe Mummy

Amenhotep III ( Amenofis III )
  • Hr kA nxt (xai-m-mAat , sxm-fAw , HqA-HqAw) , wAH-rnpwt aS-Hbw , wTS-HDt- mri-iwnw , tit-ra xnti-tAwi
  • smn-hpw sgrH-tAwi , smn-hpw-mi-nb-wAst , smn-hpw Ts-tAwi , aA-nrw-Hr-xAst-nbt , wr-mnw-r-DAt-pHti.f , THn-xaw wr-Sfyt
  • aA-xpS hwi-sTtiw ,Hwi-mnTiw dr-THnwiw , kA-n-nsww dr-pDt-A , THn-xprw wr-biAwt , wAD-kAw nfr-rnpwt nb-Hbw-sd , Hfnw-Hbw miti-ra , saA-Hwt.f-nt-Dt , ptpt-iwntiw
  • nb-mAat-ra (tit-ra , tit-imn , Ssp.n-itm , stp.n-ra , iwa-ra , iri.n-ra , mri.n-ra , sA-ra)
  • imn-Htp(w) (HqA-wAst , nTr-HqA-wAst , HqA-wAst iwa-ra)

 nb-mAat-ra Nebmaatre (Lord Of Truth Of Re)

imn-Htp(w) HqA-wAst  Amenhotep Heqa Waset (Amun Is Satisfied ; Ruler Of Thebes)

Son of Tuthmosis IV by queen Mutemweye. It is supposed, though now doubted by some, that Mutemuje was a Mitannian  princess. According to Manetho, Amenhotep ruled 38 years and 7 months. Great builder and patron of art and culture. Under his reign, as a result of many-years conquests of his predecessors, Egypt has been flooded by uncounted wealth, promoting incredible flourishing of civilization. Emission of series of scarabs add splendor to his numerous hunting events. Some expeditions to Nubia and Kush secured continuous delivery of gold from their mines. He developed diplomacy – peace with Mitanni and Babylon assured by marriage with daughters of the rulers of that countries. To his harem got from Mitanni Giluhepa and Taduhepa, daughters of king Shutarna and his heir, as well as Babylonian princesses, daughters of Kurgalzu II and Kadashman-Charbes. His royal chief-wife and mother of his heir was queen Tiji, presumably daughter of a couple of court nobles – Yuya and Tjuyu (tomb KV46). Apart from emission of scarabs major historical value bear documents found in 1887 at Amarna, which are a part of so called “dyplomatic correspondence”.  Three celebrations of his sed jubilee are known, which took place in years 30, 34 and 37 of his rule. He extended a temple at Karnak, erected magnificent funerary temple, which was the greatest one in Egypt of that times. Only two colossal statues are preserved until now (Colossi of Memnon) and some parts of the temple, like sphinx, stela, and reminders of figures. This monument had been destroyed due to earthquake in 1220 BC, thereafter pulled down and stone blocks were reused to build a funerary temple of Merenptah. At Malgatta he built splendid palace and many buildings all over Egypt giving the testimony to the sophisticated taste of the king and his architect Amenhotep son of Hapu. Apart from the palace at Malgatta and extending temples in Theban nome there are known numerous temples and other buildings all over the Land, among others at Bubastis, Athribis, Heliopolis, Sakkara. In the temple of Mut at Thebes he ordered to place 600 statues of goddess Sachmet . Attention should be paid also to the temple of Amun-Re at Soleb, temple of Sobek at Sumenu and temple of Amenhotep and Tiji at Sedeinga.
Burial place – tomb WV22 in Western Valley of the Kings. King’s mummy was found in KV35 - the tomb of Amenhotep II.

Colossus of Memnon - the remains of the wonderful mortuary temple


1339 - 1322
1397-1387 (Vandersleyen)
1372-1355 (Redford)
1367-1350 (Gardiner)
1366-1349 (Parker)
1364-1348 (Arnold)
1364-1347 (Hornung)

1360-1343 (Dodson)
1358-1340 (Aldred)
1356-1340 (Kitchen)
1355-1337/36 (von Beckerath)

1353-1337 (M
1353-1336 (Krauss, Murnane)
1352-1338 (Grimal)
1352-1336 (Shaw)
1350-1336 (Wente)

1340-1324 (Helck)
  Family Tree

Amenhotep IV ( Amenofis IV ) Akhenaten

  • Hr kA nxt qAi-Swti
  • wsr-nsyt-m-ipt-swt
  • wTs-xaw-m-iwnw-Smai
  • nfr-xprw-ra (wa-n-ra)
  • imn-Htp(w) , (nTr-HqA-wAst , aA-(m)-aHa.f , nTr-HqA-iwnw)

  • mri-itn
  • wsr-nsyt-m-Axt-itn
  • wTsr-rn-n-itn
  • nfr-xprw-ra (wa-n-ra)
  • Ax-n-itn (aA-m-aHa.f)
imn-Htp(w) nTr-HqA-iwnw Amenhotep Netjer Heqa Iunu (Amun Is Satisfied ; God Ruler Of Heliopolis)
nfr-xprw-ra wa-n-ra  Neferkheperure Waenre   (Beautiful Are The Manifestations Of Re ; Dearest Of Re)
Ax-n-itn Akhenaten (Sunbeam [Glare] Of The Aten)

Living Re, Ruler Of Horizon Glad In The Shining Land, He Lives In His Name As Re The Father, Who Comes As Aton [He Is Aton])


Son of Amenhotep III and queen Tiji. The most controversial personage in ancient Egypt history, subject of most animated discussions. In his third year of rule he started building a huge temple of Aten at Thebes, east to the temple of Amun at Karnak. In year 4 of his rule he dismissed the high priest of Amun, Maya, and introduced a new religion instead of cult of Amun.  The first phase of  religious revolution  was marked with destructions of deities connected to cult of death, leaving the solar deities untouched. In year 5 he moved the capital from Thebes to Akhet-Aten (Horison of Aten), which borders were assigned by 14 steles. At the same time he changed his name to Ax-n-itn (Ray [Glare] of Aten) as well as the whole royal titulary. Other gods, initially tolerated, now became being abolished with all possible measures, Akhenaten propagated a cult in the only one god, the solar disc – Aten, thus giving rise to the first monotheistic religion in the history. Absorbed absolutely with introducing the new religion and abolishing the old deities, he neglected completely foreign policy, loosing Egyptian possessions in Asia and on the south, as well as internal economy. Recently there is assumed that Ekhnaten did not neglect foreign policy – penalty expedition at Nubia, plans of Asiatic expedition. The truth is that possessions at Syria were lost after Ekhnaten’s death. Profound religious changes found their reflection  in art works of Amarna period. The canon prevailing so far in art and presentations has been abandoned. He had 6 daughters with Nefertiti, a beautiful queen. At the end of his rule probably he took into partnership on the throne in a co-regency his brother Semenkhkare, to whom married his eldest daughter Merytaten. Particular figure of the king, known to us from ancient paintings and sculpture made experts in medicine to suggest that the ruler suffered from genetic disorder called Marfan (Frohlich) syndrome. All in all, one should realize that similar effects those observed in Akheneaten’s presentations (long limbs, and face, spindly fingers and fat around hips, swollen belly) may result from other disorders or reasons - religion for example. There is opinion that after Akhenaten’s death the rule was held about one year by his daughter-wife Merytaten, who marrying Semenkhkare made him the ruler. Nothing is known as to , circumstances of his death, he was presumably buried at Akhet-Aten in the tomb TA26. Some scholars (Reeves, Dodson, Hawass) assume that corpse found in KV55 tomb do not belong to Smenkhkare but to Akhenaten. The project’s CT scan of Akhenaten's mummy provides an age at death of 25-40.

Painted bust of Nefertiti. Agyptiches Museum, Berlin Bust of Akhenaten. Egyptian Museum, Cairo Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three daughters. Agyptiches Museum, Berlin Akenaten and family adoring Aten


1324 - 1321
1351-1348 (Hornung, Parker)
1355 (Redford)
1346-1343 (Dodson)
1342-1340 (Aldred, Kitchen)

1338-1336 (M
álek, Grimal, Shaw))
1338-1335 (
von Beckerath)
1336-1334 (Wente)

1336-1332 (Murnane, Krauss)
1324-1319 (Helck)
  Family Tree


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  • anx-xprw-ra (mri-wa-n-ra , mrinfr-xprw-ra)
  • nfr-nfrw-itn (mri-wa-n-ra , mri-Ax-n-itn) , smnx-kA-ra (Dsr-xprw)

 anx-xprw-ra Ankhkheperwre (Living Are The Manifestation Of Re)

 smnx-kA-ra Dsr-xprw Semenkhkare Djoserkheperw (Vigorous Is The Soul Of Re ; Holy Of Manifestations)

nfr-nfrw-itn (mri-wa-n-ra) Neferneferuaten Meriwaenre (Beautiful Is Beauty of Aten ; Beloved Of Dearest Of Re

One of the most controversial characters in Egyptian history. Experts in the subject created many theories to light up darkness of that period. According to one of the hypotheses he might have been son of Amenhotep III and queen Tiji and younger brother and successor of Akhenaten. Maybe mummy from KV55 in Valley of the Kings is mummy of Semenkhkare or, his brother, Akhenaten. The belief that Semenkhkare was co-regent of Akhenaten for a couple of years is recently the most popular. According to various scholars Semenkhkare might have  ruled from 2 to 5 years. Some believe that he died shortly before Akhenaten, aged 25. According to C. Aldred of Scotland, the most outstanding experts on those times, Semenhkare and Tutankhamun were brothers.  Certainly Semenkhkare was husband of one of Akhenaten’s daughters, the princess Merytaten. According to R. Krauss she might have held rule single-handed through a year after Akhenaten’s death.


1321 - 1311
1355-1346 (Redford)
1348-1339 (Parker)
1348-1338 (Arnold)
1347-1339 (Gardiner)
1347-1338 (Hornung)
1343-1333 (Dodson)
1340-1331 (Aldred, Kitchen)

1336-1327 (British Museum, Grimal, M
álek, Shaw)
1335-1325 (
von Beckerath)
1334-1324 (Wente)
1333-1323 (Krauss)
1332-1322 (Murnane)
1319-1309 (Helck)
  Family TreeThe Mummy


  • Hr kA nxt twt-mswt
  • nfr-hpw sgrH-tAwi , wr-aH-imn , nfr-hpw sgrH-tAwi sHtp-nTrw-nbw
  • wTs-xaw sHtp-nTrw , wTs-xaw-it.f-ra
  • nb-xprw-ra (HqA-mAat)
  • twt-anx-itn , twt-anx-imn (HqA-iwnw-Smai)

 nb-xprw-ra Nebkheperwre (Lord Of Manifestations Is Re)

nb-xprw-ra HqA-mAat Nebkheperure Heqa Maat (Lord Of Manifestations Is Re ; Lord Of True)

twt-anx-itn Tutankhaten  (Living Image Of The Aten)
twt-anx-imn HqA-iwnw-Smai Tutankhamun Heqa Iunu Semai (Living Image Of Amun ; Ruler Of Heliopolis)

In spite of a discovery of almost untouched tomb (KV62) in the Valley of the Kings, our knowledge concerning this king is rather scant. Until recently, we almost exclusively deal with a number of speculations concerning the origin and the death of the king. Genetic research conducted eleven mummies in 2007-2010 showed, inter alia, that Tutankhamun was the son of Semenkhkare (mummy from KV55 tomb) and unfamiliar with the name of the king's sister, whose mummy (the Young Lady) was found in a tomb KV35 It is believed that his first years of rule he spent in Akhetaton, then moved the court, or part of this, to Memphis that was much more suitable for ruling over the land because of its convenient location. Despite, building activities of this ruler were focused mainly in Theban region and Nubia. In J. van Dijk’s opinion, Tutankhamun died at the end of August and was buried at the beginning of November. There is prevailing opinion that at moment of his death he was 18-19 years old. Sensational theory, unfortunately, also preached by eminent Egyptologists (B. Brier) about the murder of Tutankhamun by his successors proved to be, in the light of genetic researches recently carried out, have no justification. These researches have shown that the mummy of the young king was suffering from a disease Freiberg-Kohler II, which belongs to worry about the bones, had club foot and cleft palate. In addition, a bacterium of plasmodium falciparum found, which often causes a lethal form of malaria. With great probability can now say that it was malaria, which is due to a weakening immune system caused by osteonecrosis and additionally - leg broken, has become the direct cause of death of the young ruler.

Tutankhamun and Ankhesenaten Carter and Tutankhamun's coffin  Head of Tutankhamun's mummy 


1311 - 1307
1346-1343 (Redford)
1339-1335 (Parker)
1338-1335 (Arnold)
1338-1334 (Hornung)

1333-1328 (Dodson)
1331-1327 (Kitchen)
1331-1326 (Aldred)

1327-1323 (British Museum, Grimal, M
álek, Shaw)
1325-1321 (von Beckerath)
1324-1321 (Wente)
1323-1319 (
1322-1319 (Murnane)
1309-1305 (Helck)
  Family Tree

Ay II ( Eya II )

TAi-xw Hr wnm n nsw imi-rA-ssmt nb(t)n Hm.f sS mAa mri.f it-nTr ii

  • Hr kA nxt tHn-xaw , kA nxt tHn-xprw
  • sxm-pHti dr-sTt , [sxm-pHti dr]-sTtiw
  • HqA-mAat sxpr-tAwi
  • xpr-xprw-ra (iri-mAat)
  • iti-nTr iy (nTr-HqA-wAst)

 xpr-xprw-ra  iri-mAat Kheperkheperwre Irimaat (Everlasting Are The Manifestations Of Re ;  Who Does What Is Right)

 iti-nTr iy It-Netjer Ay (Father Of God Ay)

 There is scanty evidence for descent of this pharaoh. Experts in Amarna period state he was father of queen Mutnedjemet and, probably, of Nefertiti. It is also possible that he was brother of queen Tiji and son of a couple of court nobles: Yuya and Tjuyu (tomb KV46). Ay himself came presumably from Akhmim, where he was born about the time Amenhothep III was ascending the throne. In times of Akhenaten and his direct successors he held numerous honorable and responsible functions but his most important title was iti-nTr, the God’s Father, which after overtaking a rule was placed even in the royal cartouche. Under reign of the minor Tutankhamun he held an office of vizier and regent and he actually held the rule over the land. After heirless death of Tutankhamun he became the king of Egypt, however for a short time. Results of  his building activities are for all: mortuary temple at Thebes, chapels at Achmim and Abydos and buildings at Karnak and Luxor. There is an official tomb of Ay at Amarna, built under Akhnaten. His true burial place is tomb WV23 in the western Valley of the Kings.


1307 - 1292
1343-1315 (Redford)
1335-1308 (Gardiner, Arnold)
1335-1304 (Parker)
1334-1306 (Hornung)
1333-1305 (O'Connor)
1328-1298 (Dodson)
1327-1295 (Kitchen)
1326-1299 (Aldred)

1323-1295 (British Museum, Grimal, Lehner, M
álek, Shaw)
1321-1294 (von Beckerath)
1321/19-1292/91 (Wente)
1319-1292 (Krauss, Murnane, Hornung, Warburton)
1305-1292 (Helck)
  Family Tree


RpatHAti-a sS-nsw mAa mri.f wdnw n nsw m tA r-Dr.f imi-ramSa wr Hr-m-Hb

  • Hr kA nxt spd-sxrw
  • wr-biAwt-m-ipt-swt
  • hrw-Hr-mAat sxpr-tAwi
  • Dsr-xprw (stp.n-ra , HqA-mAat , HqA-wAst)
  • Hr-m-Hb (mri.n-imn , mri-imn)

 Dsr-xprw stp.n-ra Djoserkheperw Setepenre (Holy Are The Manifestations Of Re ; Chosen Of Re)

 Hr-m-Hb mri-imn Horemheb Meriamon (Horus Is In Jubilation ; Beloved Of Amun)

He originated probably from family of nobles living near Amarna. Under Akhenaten reign he served as a general of army and enjoyed from the king many honours. At those times his name was Paatenemheb (Aten Is Present In Jubilation). Under Tutankhamen he held numerous important offices  and he was also a regent of the young king. Aged 45-55, after Ai II death, he ascended the throne although not without support of priests of Amun. It happened during the Theban Opet festival that he became officially confirmed by the god Amun. He put efforts to erase from Egyptian history the whole Amarna period, among others by assigning start point of his own regnal years to death of Amenhotep III and by destroying images of immediately preceding him pharaohs. There are known facts of carrying out materials of Amarna temple for his own building projects. The central colonnade of the great hypostyle at Thebes as well as pylon 2, 9 and 10, completion of collonade at Luxor and rock-temples at Nubia are only part of widely performed building activities of Horemheb. Presumably he made war campaign in Asia thus beginning policy of great conquests, continued by his followers. There is no consensus among egyptologists as to the length of Horemheb’s rule. Presumably he reigned 13-28 years. He apponted his heir to the throne his faithful military companion and vizier – Paramessu. He build his mastaba in Saqqara however after he became pharaoh he ordered to cut a tomb KV57 in the Kings’ Valley.

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