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to XIV dynasty

XVth Dynasty 1624 - 1514
 ( Awaris )

to XVI dynasty

The Dynasty of so-called Great Hyksos, Bedouins who exploited general weakness of Egypt and invaded the Delta in XVIIIth century. These intruders seized mainly the eastern Delta where ca. 1730 BC they founded a city of Awaris. Throughout the following century these tribes, being enhanced by continuous influx of Semite population, captured the Delta and part of the Upper Egypt start the rules of XV Dynasty at Awaris.
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1624 - 1604
1630-1615 (Franke)

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
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  • sxai.n-ra
  • SArk (SAlk) , Salitis (Man) , Saites (Man)

 SArk (SAlk) Sharek (Shalek) (?)

sxai.n-ra Sekhaenre  (The One Intronized By Re)

Mentioned by Manetho, the founder of dynasty of Great Hyksos. According to Manetho Salitis conquered Egypt in times of pharaoh Tutimaios. He resided at Memphis and built the fortress-city of Awaris. Manetho ascribed to Salitis 19 years of rule. He is used to be identified with ruler named SArk [SAlk] mentioned solely in genealogy of prophets of Memphis. The throne name sxai.n-ra (The One Intronized By Re) used to be identified with Jakobaam of dynasty XVI, however J. von Beckerath attributes this name just to Salitis.


1604 - 1594
1745-1705 (Ryholt)
1664-1662 (Redford)
1615-1602 (Franke)

Sheshi ( Bnon )
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • mAa-ib-ra
  • SSi , Bnon (Man)

 SSi Sheshi

mAa-ib-ra Maaibre (Seeing In The Heart Of Re)

According to Manetho he ruled 44 years. Recently it is accepted that he ruled 3-14 years. According to Ryholt this Hyksos ruler should have belonged to XIV Dynasty.


1594 - 1586
1662-1653 (Redford)
1602-1594 (Franke)

Yakobner ( Yakobher )
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  • mri-wsr-ra
  • yaqb-hr , sA-ra mri-wsr-ra yqbarh (yaqb-hr) , Apachnan (Man)
mri-wsr-ra Meriweserre (Strong Is The Love Of Re)
yaqb-hr Yakobher ([God] Horus Protect)


In J. von Beckerath opinion Yakobner and Apachnan from Manetho’s records were one and the same ruler. Manetho’s Apachnan was supposed to rule 36 years and 7 months. His throne name mri-wsr-ra is presented on scarabs.


1586 - 1566
1653-1614 (Redford)
1621-1581 (Ryholt)
1594-1574 (Franke)

  • Hr inq-tAw
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • swsr.n-ra
  • xyan , HqA-xAswt xyAn , nTr-nfr swr.n-ra xyAn , Iannas (Man)

 swsr.n-ra Suserenre (Powerful Like Re)

 xyan Khian (Born In [month] Khijar)

One of the so-called Great Hyksossos. His name in north-western-semitic language means Born in [month] Khijar. Other known forms of his name : Khiyaran, Khajran, Khajan. The title HqA-xAswt (hence Hyksos) means “the ruler of foreign lands” and is found on cylindrical seals and one scarab. A few exceptions of relics with his name are recently scattered all over the world – Bagdad, Knossos, Bogazkoy. Manetho ascribes to him entirely too long period of 50 years of rule.


1566 - 1526
1605-1565 (Redford)
1585-1545 (Dodson)

1581-1541 (Ryholt)
1575-1540 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
1574-1534 (Franke)

  • Hr sHtp-tAwi , sHtp-[tAwi]
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • aA-qni.n-ra , nb-xps-ra , aA-wsr-ra , HqA n Hwt-wart aA-wsr-ra
  • ipp(i) , ippi , ippy , Apophis (Man) , Aphophis (Man)
nb-xps-ra Nebkhepeshre
aA-qni.n-ra Aaqenenre   (The Spirit Of Re)
HqA n Hwt-wart aA-wsr-ra Heka Khutwart Aaweserre (Great And Powerful Like Re)
aA-wsr-ra Aaweserre (Great And Powerful Like Re)
ipp(i) Apopi
ippi Apopi

 ippy Apopi

In Manetho’s opinion (Flawius) Apopi ruled 36 years  and 7 months. Turin Canon records a span of 108 years of total rule for 6 kings of this dynasty. Some scholars (Grimal) suggest two different rulers of the same name, however the prevalent opinion is that royal titulary had been changed during the long time of Pharaoh’s Apopi rule. It is believed that this ruler, despite his Hyksos origin and warring with Theban princes, was to great extent “Egyptianized “, well educated and rather peacefully disposed. He is mentioned on the Rhind and Saillier I papyri, as well as records of priesthood of Memphis and numerous relics of architecture. There are known two sisters of the ruler, Tani and Tcharydjet and his daughter – Harta. First years of his rule seem to bring peace with southern lands. It was only under Sekenenre violent struggles begin, continued thereafter by Kamose.


1526 - 1514
1565-1555 (Redford)
1545-1535 (Dodson)
1541-1540 (Ryholt)
c.1525 (von Beckerath, Helck)

  • ... ...
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  • ... ...
  • aA-sH-ra
  • [HqA-xAs(w)t] xAmwdi (Tur.10.20) , xmw(?)di , Aseth (Man) , Assis (Man) , Archles (Man)

xAmwdi Khamudi

The contemporary of king Ahmose, last of the Great Hyksos. According to the Rhind papyrus in the year 11 of Chamudi’s rule, Theban prince Ahmose captured Heliopolis and Sile. In the next year Chamudi was supposed to render his capital of Awaris. It is assumed that years 11/12 of Chamudis rule was 18/19 year of Ahmose’s rule. In Manetho’s records his name is Assis (Aseth) and Archles. Manetho decidedly overestimates duration of his rule, giving him 49 years and 2 months. Recent evidence is that he ruled 10-11 years.

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