The Dynasty of so-called Great Hyksos,
Bedouins who exploited general weakness of Egypt and invaded the Delta in XVIIIth
century. These intruders seized mainly the eastern Delta where ca. 1730 BC they
founded a city of Awaris. Throughout the following century these tribes, being
enhanced by continuous influx of Semite population, captured the Delta and part
of the Upper Egypt
start the rules of XV Dynasty at Awaris.
by Manetho, the founder of dynasty of Great Hyksos. According to Manetho
Salitis conquered Egypt in times of pharaoh Tutimaios. He resided at
Memphis and built the fortress-city of Awaris. Manetho ascribed to
Salitis 19 years of rule. He is used to be identified with ruler named
mentioned solely in genealogy of prophets of Memphis. The throne name sxai.n-ra
(The One Intronized By Re)
used to be identified with
Jakobaam of dynasty XVI, however J. von
Beckerath attributes this name just to Salitis.
J. von Beckerath opinion Yakobner
and Apachnan from Manetho’s records were one and the same ruler.
Manetho’s Apachnan was supposed to rule 36 years and 7 months. His
throne name mri-wsr-ra
is presented on scarabs.
of the so-called Great Hyksossos.
His name in north-western-semitic language means
Born in [month] Khijar.
Other known forms of his name : Khiyaran,
The title HqA-xAswt
(hence Hyksos) means “the ruler of foreign lands”
and is found on cylindrical seals and one scarab. A few exceptions of
relics with his name are recently scattered all over the world – Bagdad,
Knossos, Bogazkoy. Manetho ascribes to him entirely too long period of
50 years of rule.
HqA n Hwt-wart aA-wsr-ra
Heka Khutwart Aaweserre (Great And Powerful Like Re)
(Great And Powerful Like Re)
Manetho’s opinion (Flawius) Apopi
ruled 36 years and 7 months. Turin Canon records a span of 108
years of total rule for 6 kings of this dynasty. Some scholars (Grimal)
suggest two different rulers of the same name, however the prevalent
opinion is that royal titulary had been changed during the long time of
Pharaoh’s Apopi rule. It is believed that this ruler, despite his Hyksos
origin and warring with Theban princes, was to great extent
“Egyptianized “, well educated and rather peacefully disposed. He is
mentioned on the Rhind and Saillier I papyri, as well as records of
priesthood of Memphis and numerous relics of architecture. There are
known two sisters of the ruler, Tani and Tcharydjet and his daughter –
Harta. First years of his rule seem to bring peace with southern lands.
It was only under
Sekenenre violent struggles begin, continued
thereafter by Kamose.
contemporary of king Ahmose, last of the Great
Hyksos. According to the Rhind papyrus in the year 11 of Chamudi’s rule,
Theban prince Ahmose captured Heliopolis and Sile. In the next year
Chamudi was supposed to render his capital of Awaris. It is assumed that
years 11/12 of Chamudis rule was 18/19 year of Ahmose’s rule. In
Manetho’s records his name is Assis (Aseth) and Archles. Manetho
decidedly overestimates duration of his rule, giving him 49 years and 2
months. Recent evidence is that he ruled 10-11 years.