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   Chronology table - Prehistory
   Sources and bibliography
   Tables of genealogy
   Tombs in Ancient Egypt
   List of all pyramids
   Map of Egypt
   Who is Who in Ancient Egypt
   Contents of website  

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I am pleased to meet you on my Web pages. I owe some words of explanation to all interested in history and chronology of Ancient Egypt and such people get here in fact. It was not my intention to make Web pages focused on a problem as specific as 3000 years long Egyptian history. It was rather thought to arrange as well as possible details accessible both in scientific papers and popular science. Present work is meant for filling a gap at a point of contact between the very professional science and so-called common knowledge. By publishing the following work in the Web I’m partially paying off a debt of gratitude I have incured from Egyptology and Mediterranean archaeology, the Science I have been enjoying for many years and which has provided me a great satisfaction.
The chronology of Ancient Egypt is still very incomplete and questionable in its assumptions. There are many gaps, duration of Intermediate Periods needs to be considered very cautiously, a sequence of rulers leaves a lot to be desired too. My pages dealing with this subject are to a large extent incomplete. Nevertheless I cared deeply about making a website which from the very beginning would be devoid of empty pages, missing elements or links leading to nowhere. Systematically, day after day, I will complete their content, now and then making also some technical corrections. I decided to enrich the following service, originally meant as chronological arrangement, with some details concerning political life of Egyptian rulers, thereby increasing thematic scope of these pages. Therefore the title of my website would be

Ancient Egypt - History and Chronology

I hope this title reflects its content on a possibly large scale. Please accept my apologies if materials presented here turn out to exceed the subject or are insufficient, unconvincing or just controversial. As is known, sacra and sepulchral architecture in ancient Egypt were strictly bound to everyday life of the Nile people. It is sometimes impossible to present some political event without presenting at least  outline of  history of funerary architecture, as I was trying to on pages TOMBS devoted to sepulchral constructions.
All interested in the subject are welcome to share their remarks with me. Please send them to the following address . I shall attentively analyze your opinions concerning both the content and technical details of this website and try to answer each letter. Meeting numerous suggestions I decided to prepare an English and French version of my web pages, thus enabling everybody to get acquainted with its content. This Website has been published on a few servers. The most efficiently operating and most frequently  updated: . The site is not commercial. It does not contain advertisements and is not subsidized in any way and its maintenance rests on one person - the creator and author.

Up until recently the absolute chronology of ancient Egypt was based solely on historical sources. But old relics which survived until now or ancient historical evidenceare not the only basis to determine the dating. Lately, methods based on exact and natural sciences have been developed. At the same time, however, a lot of controversial theories emerged. First of all I mean so-called new chronology, popular especially with young generation of some scientists. The ‘new chronology’ is a theory built mainly on archaeological synchronisms, shifting some periods of Egyptian history – well, well! – 350 years back or forth. Theories as revolutionary as aforesaid are not a subject of my pages, everyone interested is referred to appropriate publications and s-f literature.
Structure of my pages is based on dating proposed by most respectable authorities of the subject. It is also attempt to connect results of examinations made by many historians. However, because their opinions sometimes vary as to many historical facts and events, I attempted to compromise describing all these various opinions or just presenting the one that seems to be most reliable. I n this place I owe you some explanation concerning horizontal arrangement of each serekh. It is constrained by the layout of this site and, from archaeological point of view, incorrect. My intention was to present the meaning of Horus-names of kings and not the faithful reproduction. The mode of computer records follow its own rules, which Ancient Egyptians unfortunately had not taken into consideration :-)  To view the transcription of kings titulary properly, please download and install transliteration font.
History is formed by writing, especially in Egypt. The most important historical sources are: Palermo Stone, Turin Canon of Kings, king-lists engraved on stone tables and walls of temples and tombs, Manetho’s Chronicle and finally – facts passed down by ancient historians – Herodotus, Diodorus, Strabon, Plutarch and Pline. S ome difficulties in establishing the sequence of Egyptian rulers result from Royal Titulary which, starting with the V Dynasty, was represented by five names-titles of kings...

For Sonia, My Beloved Daughter

I am especially indebted to:

  Mrs Danuta Cieslak               
Mrs Laurence
Mr Michael Boebé
Mr Janusz Zajda

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