period of decay and disarray of the nationhood throughout which at least 5
„dynasties”, or rather „royal families” may be distinguished. They were ruling
at different parts of the Upper Egypt. They “held reigns” usually ephemerally
and concurrently with others. Below there are presented those of rulers who laid
a claim to a royal titulary and of whom we are able to say anything. Some of the
names are possibly different names of the same person.
(Re Protects The Two Lands)
to now are preserved some artifacts dated back to this ruler’s times that
corroborate Egyptian dominance in Nubia then. They are located near the IInd
Cataract. Later notes concerning Ugaf are found in
Turin Canon and
Table of Karnak and at block from temple of Montu at Medamud as well as
Rubenson’s badge dated to the Late Period. D. Franke believes that Ugaf
might had been military commander before he overtook the rule.
(Amun Is At The
Head ; He Is Wholesome ; Amon is
gives 3 years of rule. Some relics were found as: stone blocks of Tod, a
seal, scarab, inscriptions from Semna and Aksut, statue of the temple on
1767 - 1761
(Powerful is Re ; Protector of the Two Lands)
Canon mentions 6 years of. His existence is also proved by papyri of
Illahun and Nilometer of Semna in Nubia, as well as royal plate of
Karnak and artifacts of Bubastis, Uronarti and Kerma.
1761 - 1758
Of Ka, Re)
DetlefFranke is questioning the existence of Amenemhat. In his opinion second
and fourth ruler of this dynasty are the same person, reigning ca. 1750
1758 - 1757
( Sehetepibre )
(Satisfied Is The Heart Of Re)
ruler authenticated by cylindrical seal and on recently discovered
fragment of stele of galenite mine in Gebel Zeit at Red Sea. In opinion
of Kim Ryholt Ameni Kemau (1793-1791) & Sehetepibre (1783-1781) are two
and sarcophagus belonging to this king were discovered in 1957 on
the necropolis at Dahshur.
whose name He belongs to me
is confirmed only by Turin Canon.
1756 - 1750
imny (sA) ini-iti.f (sA) imn-m-HAt
(The Heart Of The Re Lives)
(Amon Is At The Head)
Canon and Table of Karnak give evidence to this ruler. His name was
inscribed also on stone block from architrave at Heliopolis and cylindrical
1750 - 1748
( Semenkare )
smn-kA-ra Semenkare(Ka Is The Strengthened Power Of
nb-nwn Nebnun([My] Lord
name of this ruler smn-kA-ra
known of Turin Canon meant Ka is the strengthened power of Re.
In faience stela of temple of Gebel Zeit discovered in 1984 is disclosed
birth name Nebnun – [My] Lord is Nun,
which indicates that this ruler used galenite mines in Eastern Mountains.
1748 - 1745
Htp-ib-ra , <s>Htp-ib-ra
qmAw sA Hr-nD-Hr-it.f
(Satisfied Is The Heart Of Re)
(Satisfied Heart, Re)
qmAw sA Hr-nD-Hr-it.f
(Horus Protects His
ruler presumably of Asiatic origin, his name, recorded in Turin
Canon meant Horus protects his father.
Only remains of his palace at Tell el-Daba remained to date. To this king is
ascribed also a scarab found at Jerycho.
1745 - 1743
swAD-kA-ra Sewadjkare(Re of Refreshing Ka)
of this ruler, mentioned solely in Turin canon, meansRe of refreshing Ka.
The Hart Of
regent of throne name nDmib-ra
Pleasant is the hart of Re
is documented in Turin Canon. To him are also ascribed two scarabs, on of
Memphis and second of Asia Minor.
1741 - 1738
(Livingywe Incarnation Of Re)
(Sobek Is Pleased)
Canon mentions birth name of this king - sbk-ra-Htp(w)
Sobek is pleased. His throne
Livingywe incarnation of Re. The ruler is
also mentioned in Royal Table of Karnak. On stela of Abydos is preserved
his Horus name -
Hr smA-tAwi -
Horus the one who unifies the Two Lands,
Nebti name - Dd-xaw -
Of lasting incarnations
and the Golden Horus name -
The Ka strengths of Gods.
(My Name Is Healthy)
that means My name is healthy
appears only in Turin Canon with notion that this king ruled 4 months.
1736 - 1731
Aw(t)-ib-ra , Awt-ib-ra
Hr , sA-ra Hr
(Son Of Re, Horus)
no doubt this king was fond of person of Amenemhat
III. This is confirmed both by Hor’s canopic jars sealed with the
name of Amenemhat and incredible care he put to burial place of this
great pharaoh. Hor ordered to renovate the
pyramid of Amenemhat III at Dahshur. Himself he wanted to be buried
in unused shaft tomb in northern site of this pyramid. This tomb was
discovered in 1894 by J. de Morgan and yielded remains of burial and
Amenemhat Sebekhotep (Amon Is Foremost ; Sobek Is Pleased)
of Amenemhat VIII and queen Nubhetepti, carrying double name of
Amenemhat-Sebekhotep. According to J. von Beckerath who assigns to this
ruler the Bulak papyrus 18, he used to rule at least 3 years. Based on
Brooklyn Papyrus 35.1446, S. Quirke extended this period by next two
years. Traces of building activities of Sebekhotep II are found in
Theban district, Gebelein and Kerma. D. Franke assigns to Sebekhotep a
pyramid (Ai I ?) located south-east of Khendjer’s pyramid in Southern
place – pyramid at North Saqqara,
primarily 37 m high, angle of slope 55 o, crowned with pyramidion of
black granite, surrounded with outer and internal brick-wall. The
complex consisted also of mortuary temple, north chapel and queen’s
pyramid. Inside the pyramid there was a row of passages with
uncommon system of blocades and arrangements securing the chamber which
itself was hollowed out of a 60 t block of quartzite. The existence of
the pharaoh Khendjer is recorded on two papyri,
of Brooklyn and Bulak-18. In the Turin Canon no
information about lenght of his reign.
pyramid at Saqqara
1712 - 1710
smnx-kA-ra , [smnx-kA]-ra
Of The Army ; General)
von Beckerath suggests that name of the ruler which meant Commander
was primarily a title adequate to his function and became his name at
the moment of his taking the rule. To the king are devoted to colossal
sitting statues of Tanis (placed primarily at Memphis) and usurped later
by Apopis. He ruled presumably for 2-3 years.
sHtp-kA-ra , Htp-kA-ra , [sHtp]-kA-ra
whose name is mentioned in the Turyn
Canon, statue of Medinet Maadi
of the name remained only on a fragment of Turin Canon. Presumably he
ruled very shortly.
of this ruler, meaning
the brave donkey
appears merely in genealogy of priests at Memphis. In Backerath opinion
this name comes from
Seth is Brave, and was altered to this form at the
time of excommunication of the god Seth.
Sekhemre Swadjtawi (Powerful
Is Re ; He Makes To Flourish The Two Lands)
To The God
Sobek ; Sobek Is Satisfied)
of Mentuhotep and Juhetibu. Scarabs and inscriptions on the island
Sekhel as well as inscriptions on rock near Hermonthis explain genealogy
of Sebekhotep’s family. At the beginning of his rule he probably sent
military expeditions to Asia. His building activity focused mainly
around Theban district, Bubastis, Sekhel and Elephantine.
Turin Canon assigns to him one year,
one month and two days of rule.
gives him 11 years and 1 month of rule. Neferhotep was son of Haankhef,
the high priest from Abydos, and Kemi. His two brothers, Sahathor and
Sebekhotep IV, held rule immediately after him. Neferhotep resided at
Ithi-tawi in Central Egypt. Traces of this pharaoh’s rule were found
both at Byblos (Phoenicia), Aswan and Buhen in Nubia. Building activity
was focused mainly near Fayum, Thebes, at Abydos and on Elephantine.
Burial place of the ruler might have been pyramid at Mazghuna provided
that it does not belong to Sebekhotep IV, as some scholars suggest.
of Neferhotep I and Sebekhotep IV, ruling for a short time. Apart from
Turin Canon, where data concerning period of Sebekhotep rule did
not survive, his rule is documented in rock inscriptions of Sehel and
Wadi Hammamat as well as two statues of a temple of Hekaib on Elephantine.
Is The Soul Of Re)
(Sobek Is Pleased)
of Edfu gives evidence of year 8 of Sebekhotep rule. He was brother of
his immediate predecessors to the throne. The Royal List of Karnak
places Sebekhotep immediately after Neferhotep I omitting short rule of
Satathor. This ruler left numerous monuments all over Egypt giving
evidence of great significance and might of his rule; many statues of
Sebekhotep are known. Documented war campaign into Lower Nubia is a
proof of rather offensive policy at those times, however some scholars
(W. Helck) suggest that in times of Sebekhotep (or directly after they
ended) there was a governmental breakdown leading to formation of few
independent principalities. At the same time Hyksos might have come to
the rule in Delta.
In Appearence, Re)
(Sobek Is Pleased)
ruled 4 years, 8 months and 29 days as stated in Turin Canon. He is also
mentioned on Royal Table from Karnak. We do not know any more traces of
this ruler’s existence other than these two sources.
Turin Canon assigns to him ten years, eight months and twenty eight
days of rule. Name of this ruler (apart from
Turin Canon) survived on scarabs, a seal and stele of Sahathor.
His wife was queen Khaesnebu.
Is Desire Of Re)
canon assigns to him a rule of 23 years, 8 months and 28 days. Evidence
of his rule is disclosed both by relics in south and north of the land,
among others: pyramidion from his, located presumably at Saqqara,
pyramid, door-frames and stone blocks of temple at Karnak and
1656 - 1654
(The Beloved Of Re Is Pleased)
Sebekhotep(Sobek Is Pleased)
documented by Turin Canon, Royal Table, statue and stele from Karnak and
stele from Abydos. Precise identity of Sebekhotep remains still
controversial. D. Franke identifies him with king named Ani, the same
name is regarded as ancestral name of Sebekhotep. Turin Canon ascribes
him 2 years, 2 months and 9 days of rule.
mentioned in Turin Canon and Royal plate of Karnak. Probably he ruled 3
years and 2 months.
ind , mri-sxm-ra ind
Merisekhemre (Beloved Is
The Rule Of Re)
ruler mentioned in Turin Canon. His throne name means
is rule of Re. In J. von Beckerath and D.
Franke opinionhe may be identified with Neferhotep II.
1650 - 1647
(Beloved Is The Rule Of Re)
(Beautiful And Pleasing)
name of the king, Merisekhemre, means Beloved is rule of Re.
This name is identical with his predecessor’s name and due to this fact J.
von Beckerat assumed they were one person. Turin Canon assigned to him 3
years and 1 month of rule.
decumented in Turin Canon (over 2 years of rule) and royal table from
Karnak and one of statues.
1641 - 1638
Dd-Htp-ra , Dd-nfr-ra
One Bringing Lasting Peace)
Djedneferre (Re Is Enduring In His Perfection)
rulers of the same name or one who changed titulary during his reign.
Sometimes the ruler is identified with Tutimaios (of Manetho) under whom
Egypt was probably attacked by Hyksos. In D. Franke opinion Didumes
might have been the contemporary of Salitis,
the first Hyksos ruler.
...-mAat-ra ...maatre (Re [Is Perfect]
name of this ruler means „[Perfect] in Maat, Re”. It is mentioned only
in Turin Canon.
mentioned by Turin Canon, fragment of stele of Gebelein and various
items from Gebelain and Deir el-Bahari.
documented in Turin Canon (?) and remains of funerary temple of
Mentuhotep II in Deir el-Bahari. Ryholt places
him as a first king of XIV Dynasty.
Merikheperre(Beloved Form Of Re)
named Beloved form
of Re is mentioned in Turin Canon and a scarab of British Museum.
(Beloved Is The Soul Of Re)
( Sesostris IV )
(Man From Weseret; Man Of Goddess Wosret)
of unknown chronology, however he should be ascribed to this dynasty.
His existence and titulary are confirmed by some artifacts – royal table
of Karnak, statue and fragment of stele dated to first year of his rule.
(Eternal Is The Life Of Re)
This ruler, whose throne name Dd-anx-ra
Is The Life of Re
and the birth name mnTw-m-sA.f
Monu protects him.
Existence of Montuemsaf is confirmed by stele of Gebelein and a few
nfr-Htp , ii-Hr-nfrwt
Sekhemre Sankhtawi(The Power Of Re Brings Life To The Two Lands)
(Beautiful and Pleasing)
whose full titulary is known thanks to stele discovered in temple of
Karanak. He is presented there as king-warrior who defends and saves a
city of Thebes. For the first time in Egyptian history the blue crown is
mentioned in the stele of Neferhotep. Ryholt
assigned him to XVI Dynasty.
(Re Is Pleased In Life)
Mentuhotep(Montu Is Pleased)
ruler’s throne name was mri-anx-ra,
Pleased With Life.
From his times remained only statue of god Sobek, found at Karnak.
wsr-mnTw , wsr-[mn]Tw
Wesermontu(Montu Is Strong)
named Montu Is
Strong is known from stele and
limestone block from Deir el-Bahari.
(Sobek Is Pleased)
documented by royal table from Karnak. Stele built in the third pylon in
temple in Karnak mentions fourth year of his rule. Ryholt assigned this
ruler to XVI Dynasty.
Meryshepsesre (Beloved Is The
Dignity Of Re)
ruler whose throne name
Is The Dignity of Re
is known from the sitting statue devoted to Amun-re of Karnak.
Mentuhotep(Montu Is Satisfied)
VI is known to us only from a fragment from mortuary temple of
Mentuhotep Nebhepetre at Deir el-Bahari.
(Of Invariable Incarnations Of Re)
king is mentioned on stele of Abydos by a name
snaa-ibOf Mild Heart,
and throne namemn-xaw-ra
Of Invariable Incarnations of Re.
At the stele the king is presented in blue crown in front of
that ruled at twilight of the dynasty, confirmed on three scarabs.
(Wepwawet Is My Protection)
ruler’s name means Wepwawet is
my Protection and is
confirmed at stela of Abydos and hieratic graffito in a tomb of prince
Amenemhat at Beni Hasan.
The king’s existence is testified in Turin
Canon and architrave with his name found at Abydos by Sir W.F. Petrie.