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to Alexander The Great and Macedonian Kings

Ptolemaic Dynasty ( Lagids ) 306 - 30
( Alexandia )

to Rome Emperors (in the future)

In Egyptian history the Ptolemaic period is one of the best known. Ptolemais Dynasty (Lagids) founded by general of Alexander the Great, Ptolemy, son of Lagos, ends up in 30 BC with death of Cleopatra VII and Roman invasion by Octavian August. Ptolemaic Egypt was one of the greatest superpowers of Hellenistic East. That times are the crowning glory of pharaonic art and architecture. Ptolemys erected many magnificent temples, preserved until now: in Edfu, Esna, Kom Ombo, Dendera, on File and Elephantine to mention only the most beautiful and greatest of them. Power of Egyptian Empire and its influence on other countries in eastern part of Mediterranean basin could compare with the most excellent for the land on Nile times of dynasties XVIII, XIX and XXII.
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306 - 282
Family Tree

Ptolemy I Soter I ( Savior )

wr-aA m bAqt ptlmis , ptlmis pA xStrpn

  • Hr wr-pHti nsw-qni
  • iTi-m-sxm[.f?]-m-HqA-Tl
  • ... ...
  • stp.n-ra mri-imn , xpr-kA-ra stp-n-imn
  • ptwlmis
  • ntrwi nDtiwi

 Hr wr-pHti nsw-qni

mri-imn Meriamon (Beloved Of Amon)
Setepenre (Chosen Of Re)

ptwlmis Ptolemajos  (Ptolemy)
Πτολεμαιος Σωτη Ptolemaios Soter

Son of Lagos and Arsinoe born in 369/8 BC or 360/356 BC , husband of Thais and then - Artakama, Eurydice, Berenice I and Lamia. He was one of the commanders under Alexander the Great. At the famous meeting in Babylon in 323 he was chosen administrator of Egypt.  He administered it in behalf of Phillip Arrchideaus and  next of Alexander the Great. In 322/21 he took part in coalition against  Pardikkas and won two battles at the Delta during the so called war of diadochi (the war between heirs of Alexander). He also overtook embalmed body of Alexander that were to be buried in Macedonia by Perdikkas. During the second diadochi war in 319-15 BC, Ptolemy took up Syria and Palestine. During the third diadochi war he lost Syria while his brothers, Seleukos and Menelaos, gained Cyprus for Egypt. In 312-09 he was alternately winning and losing Syria in favor of Seleukos. King of Egypt as Basileus in late summer or autumn 306 and as pharaoh between 7 November 305 and the 10 July 304 BC. During the fourth war of diadochi against Antigonos, Ptolemy gained Syria and Phenicia as far as to Byblos. In aftermaths of alliance made with Pyrrus of Epyr and war with Demetrios, Ptolemy attached to Egypt Cyprus , Licia, Pamphilia and Tyr and Sydon in Syria. Last years of rule he acted also on Greek territory. At that times there was also the fifth war of diadochi (228-85) during which he supported Athens against Demetrios. He held the rule over Cyclades  as commander of the Union of Greek Islands. Ptolemy I Soter was also exquisite administrator, he standarized the monetary system and made orders in economy. Building activity is certified by temples in Terenutis, Tebtynis, Kom el-Ahmar, Oxyrynchos and Tuna el-Gebel. In Alexandria he put basics for Museion and library and built temple of Serapis. He died probably 10 January 282, aged 84.


284 -
282 - 246
Family Tree

Ptolemy II Philadelphos

  • Hr Hwnw-qni
  • wr-pHti
  • axai.n-sw-it.f
  • wsr-kA-n-ra mri-imn , wsr-kA-ra mri-imn
  • ptwlmis
  • nTrwi snwi

wsr-kA-n-ra Weserkaenre  (Powerful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re)
mri-imn Meriamon  (Beloved Of Amon)

ptwlmis Ptolemajos (Ptolemy)
Πτολεμαιος Φιλαδελφος Ptolemaios Philadelphos

Husband of Arsinoe I  and later of Arsinoe II. Born in 309/8 on Cos Island, son of Ptolemy I and Berenike I, since 284 the coregent and since 282 the independent ruler of Egypt. He brought to greatness the power of Lagids in eastern areas of Mediterranean sea. His firs years of rule were branded with family disputes of succession and intrigues of Arsinoe II - Ptolemy’s sister and wife of Lizymakh, the king of Macedonia. After the latter’s death Arsinoe I is driven out of the country and it came to marriage with Arsinoe II.  Ptolemy’s expedition to Syria at the end of 274 caused the first Syrian war, finally ended up with signing peace in 271. During next couple of years Ptolemy puts attention to Greece and makes efforts to hold protectorate over the Union of Greek Islands as well as support of sea expedition to Bisantium. Second Syrian war was not very lucky for Ptolemy. Egypt lost Cilicia and Pamphilia, additionally had to pay presumably high war compensation to Antioch II who married Ptolemy’s daughter – Berenice. However, in 250 thank to victory over Antygon in sea battle in Macedonia and support of Achaian Union, Ptolemy managed regain his position at the Egeian sea basin. During the general register in Egypt there were listed all fields, canals and green areas. Both this register and introduction of tax regulations in 259 were aimed to win maximal incomes for developing foreign and economic politics. On the field of building industry Ptolemy became famous for starting the temple of Isis at the island of File, building of temples at Elephantine and fragments of temples at Thebes. There are preserved structures raised at Saqqara, Behbet el-Hagar, Sebennytos and Fayum and Charga Oasis. Building of lighthouse at Pharos was completed around 280.


280 - 272
Family Tree

Arsinoe II

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • Xnm(t)-ib-n-mAat mr(t)-nTrw
  • arsinAt

Xnm(t)-ib-n-mAat mr(t)-nTrw henemet ib en Maat merit neteru  (Who Is United In The Heart Of Truth, Beloved Of The Gods)

arsinAt  Arsinoe


Daughter of Ptolemy I and Berenice I, sister of Philotera and Ptolemy II, then his wife. As a wife of Macedonian king, Lisymach, she intrigued against her own brother Ptolemy and drove to murdering of Macedonian heir to the throne Agathokles. After Lisymach’s death she was married to Keraunos who crowned himself a king of Lisymachia after the diadochi battle. In 279 he murdered Arsinoe’s children and she escaped to Egypt where she managed to drive Arsinoe I out of the country and marry hers brother and coregent between 280 and 272 BC. After death she was deified in the whole East-Mediterranean region.


246 - 222
Family Tree


Ptolemy III Euergetes I ( Benefactor )

  • Hr Hkn-nTrw-rmTt-Hr.f , m-Ssp.f-nsyt-m-a-it.f , wr-pHti iri-aDt-m-bTnw.f
  • qnw nDti-nTrw inb-mnx-n-tAmri
  • wr-pHti iri-Axt nb-Hbw-sd-mi-ptH-tA-Tnn ity-mi-ra
  • iwa-n-nTrwi-snwi , stp(.n)-ra , sxm-anx-n-imn
  • ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-ptH)
  • pA nTr mnx , nTrwi m nxwi

Hr Hkn-nTrw-rmTt-Hr.f

iwa-n-nTrwi-snwi  iwa en netjerwy senwy (The Heir Of The Sibling-Loving Gods)
Setepenre (Chosen of Re)
 Sekhemankhenamon  (The Living Image Of Amun)

ptwlmis anx-Dt mri-ptH Ptolemajos ankh det Meriptah (Ptolemy, Living Forever ; Beloved Of Ptah)
Πτολεμαιος Ευεργετης Ptolemaios Euergetes

Son of Ptolemy II and Arsinoe I, husband of Berenice II. Under his reign, in 238 at Kanopos toom place synod of Egyptian clergy that resulted in solemn decree issued in Greek, demotic and hieroglyphic writing. This tradition survived under following rulers. After third Syrian war (246-41) Euergetes strengthened his rule in Celesyria (southern Syria with Palestine and Phoenician cities).  He supported Sparta of Kleomenes, Etolia Union and Athenes. He was dedicated builder; he erected the best known until now Egyptian temple of Horus at Edfu. Furthermore, there are known his building works at File, Elephantine, Esna, Theban area, Kharga Oasis, Kanopos and Alexandria. He arranged second library in Alexandrian Serapeum and put big efforts to gain books there. Ptolemy III died of natural causes between 18 October and 31 December 222 BC.


 246 - 222
Family Tree

Berenice II

  • Hr sAt-HqA irt-n-HqA
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • brnikt (nTrt mnx(t) mr(t)-nTrwt)

Hr sAt-HqA irt-n-HqA

brnikt Berenice


Daughter of Megas the king of Cyrene and Arsinoe, born around 267/6. First marriage with Demetrius the Just, second – with Ptolemy III with whom she had childern: Ptolemy IV, Megas, Arsinoe III and Berenice and one more son of unknown name (Lizymakh or Alexander?). Still alive she was endowed with divine worship. Coregency with Ptolemy III between 246-222 BC. She died in 221, presumably poisoned.


222 - 204
Family Tree

Ptolemy IV Philopater ( Loving Father )

  • Hr Hnw-qni sxai.n-sw-it.f
  • wr-pHti mnx-ib-xr-nTrw-nb(w) nDti-n-Hnmmt
  • swDA-bAqt sHD-gsw prw smn-hpw-mi DHwti-aA-aA nb-Hbw-sd-mi-ptH-tA-Tnn ity-mi-ra
  • iwa-n-nTrwi-mnxwi stp.n-ptH wsr-kA-ra sxm-anx-(n-)imn
  • ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-Ast)
  • nTr mri-it.f , nTrwi-(mrwi)-it

iwa-n-nTrwi-mnhwi  iwa en netjer wymenehwy (The Heir Of The Beneficient Gods)
Setepenptah (Chosen Of Ptah)
wsr-kA-ra Weserkare  (Powerful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re)
sxm-anx-n-imn  Sekhemankhenamon  (The Living Image Of Amon)

ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-ptH-Ast) Ptolemajos ankh det meri Iset  (Ptolemy Living Forever, Beloved Of Isis)
Πτολεμαιος Φιλοπατωρ Ptolemaios Philopator

Eldest son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II, husband-brother of Arsinoe III. He spent his rule on drunken feasts and religious considerations (sic!). A courtier Sosibios who had a considerable power in the land, lead to murdering of his political opponents: Berenice II, Megas – Ptolemy II’s brother and Lisymach – Ptolemy III’s brother. Foreign politics of Egypt done by Sosibios and Agatokles was directed on fight for Syria against Seleucids. During the fourth Syrian war, in the battle at Rafia totally 130 thousand of soldiers, 11 thousand of horse riders and 175 thousand of elephants were engaged on both sites. The war finished in favor of Ptolemy. In Upper Egypt at short time for the rule reached local noble Horwennefer (Harnakhis) and claimed himself a  pharaoh. After his death in 199 the rule at Thebaida was overtaken by Ankhmakhis who continued  work of his predecessor. Ptolemy Philopator died in summer 204, before he reached an age of 40.


205 - 199

Horwennefer (Harmakhis)

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  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • Hr-wn-nfr mr-Js.t mr-Jmn-Ra-nsw-ntr.w pA ntr aA

Theban dignitary, as sometimes implied - the great priest of Ptah at Memphis. In 205 BC, under Ptolemy IV he appointed himself a pharaoh and ruled Upper Egypt over a period of few years. Died probably in 199 BC passing the rule over Thebaida to Ankhwennefer (Ankhmakhis). There is opinion that Horunnefer and Ankhunnefer are the same person who changed his name in 199 BC for unknown reasons.


199 - 186

Ankhwennefer (Ankhmakhis)

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • anx-wn-nfr mr-Js.t mr-Jmn-Ra-nsw-ntr.w pA ntr aA

Horwennefer's (Harmakhis) sucessor at Theban throne. He lost power in Thebes in 199/198 BC and the rest of Thebaida in 191/190. Although supported by army of Meroe he was defeated by Comanos, a commander in behalf of Ptolemy V. In this battle was killed Ankhunefer's son and he hemself was captured August 27, 186 BC. September of the same year he was released. Also Lykopolis at Delta run riot agains Alexandria. The uprising lasted up to 185 BC when it was suppressed by Polykrates of Argos. Leader of the revolt was tormanted to death in Sais. Synod at Alexandria announced Ankhwennefer the foe of gods, however pardoned him later. There is opinion that Horunnefer and Ankhunnefer are the same person who changed his name in 199 BC for unknown reasons.


210 -
204 - 180
Family Tree

Ptolemy V Epiphanes ( Manifestation of God )

  • Hr Hwnw-xai-m-nsw-Hr-st-it.f
  • wr-pHti smn-tAwi snfr-tAmri mnH-ib-xr-nTrw
  • wAD-anx-n-Hnmmt nb-Hbw-sd-mi-ptH ity-mi-ra
  • iwa-n-nTrwi-mr(wi)-it stp(.n)-ptH , wsr-kA-ra sxm-anx-(n)-imn
  • ptwlmis
  • pA ntr pri , nTr-pri , nTr pri nb-nfrw , nTrwi prwi

iwa-n-nTrwi-mr(wi)-it  iua en neczerui merui it (The Heir Of The Beneficient Gods)
Setepenptah (Chosen Of Ptah)
wsr-kA-ra Weserkare  (Powerful Is The Soul [Ka] Of Re)
sxm-anx-n-imn  Sekhemankhenamon  (The Living Image Of Amun)

ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-ptH)  Ptolemajos anch det Meriptah  (Ptolemy, Living Forever, Beloved Of Ptah)
Πτολεμαιος Eπιφανης Ptolemaios Epiphanes

Husband of Cleopatra I – a daughter of Antiochus III, son of Ptolemy Philopator by Arsinoe III. He became a king (at least officially) being a child of about 5 years. As a regent in his name ruled Agathocles, a favorite of Ptolemy IV, put to death later by Alexandrians. The succeeding regent was Tlepolemos. In 197 BC, at the age of 14, Ptolemy Epiphanes assumed a title of king and his official coronation was held at Memphis on Egyptian manner. In March of the following year the synod of Egyptian priesthood in the city of Memphis made and published a solemn decree in honor of the king. It is known presently as the Rosetta Stone. In his 19th year was born his first son by Cleopatra – Ptolemy. In 196 BC the royal army under Komanos suppressed a south-egyptian revolt raised by Anchmachis and imprisoned the very leader whose son was killed in the battle. Ptolemy died at the age of 29 and at this time the Egyptian empire lost all its possessions except Cyprus and Kyrene.


180 - 178/7
Family Tree

Cleopatra I (Syra)

Hwn(t) sAt-HqAt mr(t)-nTrw-bAqt Xqr(t)-n-Xnmw TAtt-sAt-DHwti wr(t)-pHti shr(t)-tAwi rdi.n.s-nbti-rxyt-n-nfrw qni-si-nt-nb(t)-sAw Tni-si-HtHr-m-mrwt.s


 qlwptrt  Cleopatra

Daughter of Antiokh III and Leodike. She was married to Ptolemy V Epiphanes in 194/3 thus approving peace between Ptolemys and Seleucids. She was mother of three rulers: Ptolemy IV, Ptolemy VII and Cleopatra II. Yet being alive, she was deified together with her husband and then honored with Horus name and numerous titles reserved for rulers. After Epiphanes’ death in 180 she became regent and held rule in behalf of her minor child, Ptolemy VI. She died in 178/7 BC.


180 -
178/7 - 164
163 - 145
Family Tree

Ptolemy VI Philometor ( Loving Mother )

  • Hr Tni-m-Xt Htr-Hpw-anx-Hr-msxn(t).sn
  • ...-m-mAat sxai-n-sw-it.f
  • wr-pHti nb-Hbw-sd-mi-ptH-tA-Tnn-it-nTrw ity-mi-ra
  • iwa-n-nTrwi-prwi stp.n-ptH-xpri iri-mAat-imn-ra , iwa-(n-)nTrwi-prwi stp.n-ptH iri-mAat-n-imn-ra-r-nHH
  • ptwlmis (anx-Dtmri-ptH)
  • nTr mri m wt.f , pA nTr mri mwt.f , nTrwi mrwi m wt , nTrw mrw m wt

iwa-n-nTrwi-prwi iwa en netjerwy perwy  (The Heir Of The Houses Of The Gods)
Setepenptahkhepry (Chosen Of Ptah-Khepry)
iri-mAat-imn-ra Irimaatamonre (Who Brings Forth The Order Of Amun-Re)

ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-ptH) Ptolemajos anch det Meriptah  (Ptolemy, Living Forever, Beloved Of Ptah)
Πτολεμαιος Φιλομητωρ Ptolemaios Philometor

Two dignitaries, Lenaeus and Eulaeus, took the regency after sudden death of Cleopatra I. Her son, 11 years old Ptolemy, married his own sister – Cleopatra II. In October of 170 the control of Egypt had been split among Ptolemy VI, Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra II. In 169 BC he made disgraceful for Egypt settlement with Antiochus IV. For that reason he was finally dethroned by Alexandrians. The king’s protector, Antiochus IV, laid siege to Alexandria for some time but with no success. At Alexandrians’ request Rome gave rule to the three siblings again. About 164 BC took place an uprising incited by Serapis-Dionysus, an adviser of Ptolemy VIII. He was a hellenised Egyptian and as such he aimed to overtake rule from Philometor in favor of the inexperienced Ptolemy VIII. In 163 BC the rule was officially split up between the brothers – Philometor was to rule over Egypt and Cyprus while Ptolemy VIII obtained Cyrene. Philometor was perished in 145 BC in a battle at the river Oinoparas with the Seleucid  king Antiochus Balas who was his son-in-law. He went down in history as a peaceful and just ruler.


170 -
132 - 127
124 -
116 - 116/5
Family Tree

Cleopatra II

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • qlwptrt (nTrt mr(t) mwt)
  • nTrt-mnxt

 qlwptrt (nTrt mr(t) mwt) Cleopatra netjeret meret Mut

Daughter of Ptolemy V Epiphanes and Cleopatra I. She was married to her own brother Ptolemy VI; they had together children: the later coregent Ptolemy Eupator, Ptolemy VII and two daughters: Cleopatra Thea and Cleopatra III. In  145 she married Ptolemy VIII who came to the rule by killing his potential pretender, Ptolemy VII. One year later their son Memfites was born. In 132 as result of civil war, she overtook independently the rule in the land and drove Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III out to Cyprus. Cleopatra did not have support of Egyptian people and her rule rested only against Greeks and Jews. For this reason Ptolemy VIII returned in 130 and regained the rule. After failure of a couple of intrigues organized with Demetrios II against Egypt, Cleopatra could participate in common rule of three in Alexandria since 124 BC.


Family Tree

Ptolemy Eupator

Born 15 October 166, son of Ptolemy VI Philopator and Cleopatra II. In 152 BC, when he was only 14, his father probably assigned him a co-regent. Thus he, at least officially, became a king of Cyprus. He died in 152 from a plague spreading all over Egypt at that time.


145 - 144
Family Tree

Ptolemy (VII) Neo Philopater ( New Philopater )

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ptwlmis
  • pA nTr Hwnw mri-it.f

pA nTr Hwnw mri-it.f pa neteru hunu meriitef
Πτολεμαιος Νεος Φιλοπατωρ Ptolemaios Neos Philopator

Second son of Ptolemy Philometor and Cleopatra II. At moment of his father’s death he was 15  years old. For this reason through next few moths the rule in his behalf was held by his mother, Cleopatra II, until the moment of her marriage with Ptolemy VIII Euergetes, the king of Cyrena. Murdered in Ptolemy VIII’s order in 145. Putting him into Ptolemaic dynasty by assigning to him a number in order is considered as mistake because  this Ptolemy de facto never held the rule.


170 -
164 - 163
145 - 116
Family Tree

Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II ( Benefactor

  • Hr Hwnw mar-spw Dsr-msxaw.f-Hna-Hpw-anx , Hr-nst-it.f tit-Dsr(t)-nt-nsw-nTrw stp.n-itm-Ds.f , Hwnw Hri-tp-pDt-9 sA-wsri msi-n-Ast Ssp-n.f-nsyt-ra-m-a-it.f
  • shrw-ib-tAwi
  • wr-pHti nb-Hbw-sd-mi-it.f-ptH-tA-Tnn-it-nTrw-ity-mi-ra
  • iwa-n-nTrwi-prwi stp.n-ptH iri-mAat-ra sxm-anx-(n)-imn
  • ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-ptH)
  • pA nTr mnx , pA nTr mnx nb-qnw , nTrwi-mnxwi , nTrw-mnxw 

stp.n-ptH Setepenptah (Chosen Of Ptah)
iri-mAat-ra Irimaatre (Who Brings Forth The Order Of Re)
sxm-anx-n-imn  Sekhemankhenamon  (The Living Image Of Amun)

ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-ptH) Ptolemajos ankh det Meriptah (Ptolemy, Living Forever ; Beloved Of Ptah)
Πτολεμαιος Ευεργετης Φυσκων Ptolemaios Euergetes Phuskon

Son of Cleopatra I and Ptolemy Epiphanes, brother of Ptolemy Philometor and Cleopatra II. In 170-163 BC he ruled Egypt jointly with his brother and sister. In 163 BC under a settlement made with his brother he became a king of Cyrene. Supported by Rome he put efforts to take a rule over Cyprus. Upon his brother’s death he married his own sister Cleopatra II and ascended a throne. His new wife bore him a son – Ptolemy, from the place of birth named Mephites. In 142 BC he married ceremonially his niece Cleopatra III. The existence of two legitimate queens, two wives of the ruler, resulted soon in a conflict in the royal family. Euergetes was a cruel ruler. He put to death his own son, Memphites, and sent his chopped body to the mother. This was a reason of a civil war and a splitting up of the State. In 129 BC Ptolemy acquired all the state with an exception of Alexandria which still sympathized with Cleopatra. Euergetes captured the city in 126 BC but a series of repressive measures did not made them popular. In 123 BC Cleopatra had returned from an exile and another co-regency with her husband brother started.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes called contemptuously by Alexandrians a Physkon (Pot-belly) died on the28 of June 116 after 54 years of rule. He left in will rule over Egypt to his wife-niece, Cleopatra III, and which ever of her sons she would prefer as a co ruler. The next son was to rule independently over Cyprus. Cyrene was in turn assigned to Ptolemy the Apion, son of hetaera Eyrene.


  140 -
 116/5 - 101
Family Tree

Cleopatra III

  • nb(t)-tAwi kA-nxt
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • qlwptrt
  • tA nTrt mr(t) sn

 nb(t)-tAwi kA-nxt

 qlwptrt Cleopatra

Daughter of Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II. She was married to Ptolemy VIII and gave him five children: Ptolemy IX, Tryphaine, Cleopatra (IV), Ptolemy X and Cleopatra Selene. She ruled with her husband and mother, later with sons: Ptolemy IX and X. It seems that she played leading role on Alexandrian court after Ptolemy VIII’s death and she held actually the rule until being murdered on Ptolemy X order in September 101 BC.


 132 - 130


  • ... ...
  • ... ...
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  • Hr-sA-is(t ) sA-wsjr
  • ... ...

Presumably son of Paious. Ruled over Tebaida for two years, in 39-40 year of the reign of Ptolemy VIII. He is disclosed by Greek and demotic historical sources. After being expelled of Thebes he seized a rule at el-Hibe in the Central Egypt and killed 16 September 130 BC.


116 - 107
89 - 81
Family Tree

Ptolemy IX Soter II Lathyros ( Pea )

  • Hr Dsr-mswt-Hna-Hpw-anx nTri-xpr(w) Htr-msxn(t)-nt-sA-Ast , kA nxt ity-psD-m-tAmri-mi-Hpw-anx-rdi-n.f-Hbw-sd-aSAw-wrw-mi-tA-Tnn-it-nTrw
  • sxai-sw-m wt.f-Hr-nst-it.f iTi-tAwi-m-mAa-xrw , wr-pHti sxm-wAD-wr iTi-iwa-tAwi-m-mAa-xrw mnx-ib-Hr-nTrw , wr-pHti xntS-nHH mn-hpw-mi-DHwti-aA-aA
  • nb-tAmri HqA.f-m-Haaw nb-Hbw-sd-mi-tA-Tnn-it-nTrw-nsyt(?) ity-smn-hpw-mi-DHwty-aA-aA , Ssp-tAmri HqA.f-m-Haaw nb-Hbw-sd-aSAw-wrw-mi-it.f-ptH-tA-Tnn-smsw-nTrw Ssp.n.f-nsyt-n-ra-m-qnw-nxt (ity-wDa-mAat smn-hpw-mi-DHwty-aA-aA)
  • iwa-(n)-nTr-mnx-nTrt-mr(t)-mwt.s-nDt(t) stp.n-ptH iri-mAat-ra sxm-anx-imn , iwa-(n)-nTrwi-mnxwi stp.n-ptH iri-mAat-ra sxm-anx-n-imn
  • ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-ptH)
  • pA nTr mri-mwt , pA nTr nti nHm , nTr wi mrwi mwt , nTr w mrw mwt

  Setepenptah (Chosen Of Ptah)
iri-mAat-ra  Irimaatre (Who Brings Forth The Order Of Re)
sxm-anx-n-imn  Sekhemankhenamon  (The Living Image Of Amun)

ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-ptH) Ptolemajos ankh det Meriptah (Ptolemy, Living Forever ; Beloved Of Ptah)
Πτολεμαιος Σωτηρ Λαθυρος Ptolemaios Soter Lathuros

The eldest son of Cleopatra III and Ptolemy VIII Euergetes. Husband and brother of Cleopatra IV. His father left him a kingship of Cyprus. However, after death of Cleopatra II he ruled Egypt alongside his mother. In 107 BC exiled by his mother and Alexandrians he found refuge on Cyprus while rule in Egypt fell to his brother Ptolemy X Alexander and Cleopatra III. Involuntarily he replaced his brother on a throne of Cyprus. A result thereof was a ruthless struggle between Lathyros and Alexander. Banished by Alexandrians in 107, after death of Ptolemy X Alexander returned and took a throne again in 89 BC and in 88 with his daughter Berenice III. He died in December 81 without leaving any male descendant.


107 -
101 - 88
Family Tree

Ptolemy X Alexander I

  • Hr nTri-m-Xt Xnm.n-sw-Hpw-anx-Hr-msxn(t) Hwnw-nfr bnr-mrwt sxai.n-sw-mwt.f-Hr-nst-it.f TmA-a Hwi-xAswt iTi-m-sxm.f-mi-ra-psD.f-m-Axt
  • shrw-tAwi kA-nxt sHm-nHH
  • aA-ib mri-nTrw ity-bAqt HqA-wADti aq.f-tAmri-m-Htp...
  • iwa-(n)-nTr-mnx-nTrt-mnxt-sAt-ra stp.n-ptH iri-mAat-ra snn-anx-n-imn , mri-nTr-mnx-nTrt-mnxt-sAt-ra stp.n-ptH iri-mAat-ra snn-anx-n-imn
  • ptwlmis Dd n.f alksntrs (anx--Dt mri-ptH)
  • pA nTr mri mwt.f , nTr wi mrwi mwt

Setepenptah (Chosen Of Ptah)
iri-mAat-ra  Irimaatre (Who Brings Forth The Order Of Re)
sxm-anx-n-imn  Sekhemankhenamon  (The Living Image Of Amun)

ptwlmis Dd n.f alksntrs (anx--Dt mri-ptH) Ptolemajos djed nef Aleksandros ankh djet Meriptah (Ptolemy Called Alexander, Living Forever ; Beloved Of Ptah)
Πτολεμαιος Aλεξανδρος Ptolemaios Alexandros

Son of Cleopatra III and Ptolemy Euergetes II, brother of Ptolemy IX and Cleopatras: IV, Selene and Tryphaine. According to his father’s testimony he was assigned to rule Cyprus but he strove for it many years standing up to his brothers-and-sisters’ intrigues. In turn he took a throne of Alexandria in 107 BC as a result of his mother’s intrigues and after banishing his brother to Cyprus. In 102 BC without keeping up any appearances he deprived his mother both of rule and life. Traditionally, he shared a rule with his wife-niece – Berenice III.


101 - 88
81 - 80
Family Tree

Berenice III

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  • rpat(t) wr(t)-Hsw(t)
  • birnikt
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rpat(t) wr(t)-Hsw(t) birnikt repatet weret hesut, Berenice

Daughter of Ptolemy IX by Kleopatra Selene, after her father’s death she ruled in Egypt for half a year as a Tea Philopator, which was her cult name. After a Roman dictator Sulla had been driven out, Ptolemy XI returned to Alexandria and married the step-mother in order to strengthen his claim to the rule. A few days later he had murdered her.


Family Tree

Ptolemy XI Alexander II


After Ptolemy IX death Rome assigned to him a rule over Alexandria. As soon as he ascended the throne he murdered his stepmother Berenice III being also his just married wife. For that reason Alexandrians put him to death at Gymnasion.  No titulary is known for him.


80 - 58
55 - 51
Family Tree

Ptolemy XII Neo Dionysos ( New Dionysos )
Auletes (
Flutist )

  • Hr Hwnw-nfr bnr-mrwt Tni-nw-nbt-rxyt-Hna-kA.f dwA.n.f-Xnmw-Sps-r-Sps-n.f-xa(t)-m-HDt snsn.n-sHnw-mi-nD--it.fTHn-msw(t)-Hr-nst-it.f-mi-Hr-kA-nxt ity-psD-m-tAmri-mi-Hpw-anx rdi.n.f-Hbw-sd-aSAw-wrw-mi-ptH-tA-Tnn-it-nTrw
  • wr-pHti xntS-nHH smn-hpw-mi-DHwti-aA-aA , wr-pHti xntS-nHH nfr-ib wTs-nfrw-mi-DHwti-aAaA
  • aA-ib ity nb-qnw-nxt-mi-sA-Ast , aA-ib mri-nTrw-bAqt ity-mri-ra HqA-wADti
  • iwa-n-pA-nTr-nti-nHm (stp.n-ptH iri-mAat-n-ra sxm-anx-imn) , (stp.n-ptH iri-mAat-imn-ra) , (stp.(n)-ptH iri-mAat)
  • ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-ptH-Ast) , (anx-Dt-mri-Ast)
  • pA nTr mri it snt wsir Hwnw , pA nTr mri it.f-snw , nTrwi mrwi it mrwi snw

iwa-n-pA-nTr-nti-nHm iwa en panetjer nehem (The Heir Of The Saviour God)
Setepenptah (Chosen Of Ptah)
iri-mAat-n-ra  Irimaatenre   (Who Brings Forth The Order Of Re)

ptwlmis (anx-Dt mri-ptH-Ast) Ptolemajos ankh det Meriptah Iset  (Ptolemy, Living Forever ; Beloved Of Ptah And Isis)
Πτολεμαιος Νεος Διόνυσος Ptolemaios Neos Dionusos

Ruler elected by Alexandrians despite lack of any ancestral rights to the throne other but his later marriage with Cleopatra V Tryphaine. He sought Roman favours whose claim to rule Egypt was more and more evident. In year 59 BC he obtained a title of a “friend of Romans” in return for financial support of Caesar. Contributed to annexation of Cyprus by Rome and to his brother’s death, Ptolemy of Cyprus. In Alexandria he was unpopular to such a degree that in 58 BC he was forced to turn to Rome for aid against his own subordinates. At a price of 10 000 talents he managed to get back his throne in Alexandria. Soon afterwards he murdered his own daughter Berenice IV. Died at the beginning of a year 51, detested by everybody.


58 - 55
Tablica genealogiczna

Berenice IV

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  • birnikt

 Daughter of Ptolemy XII by Kleopatra V Tryphaine. After driving her father out of Rome she held rule over Egypt, initially together with her mother and after her death in 57 BC – independently. In 56 BC she married Archelaos, son of Mitrydates VI. In 55 BC after his return to Rome, Ptolemy XII ordered to kill Berenice an many of her followers.


51 - 47
Family Tree

Ptolemy XIII

Πτολεμαιος Θεος Φιλοπατωρ     Ptolemaios Theos Philopator

At the moment of his father’s death Ptolemy XIII was only 10 years old. At this age after Auletes’ last will he shared rule with his elder sister, 17 years old Cleopatra. On behalf of the young heir to the throne the rule was held by: Pothejnos , Theodotes from Chios and Achillas, a commander-in-chief. They caused disagreement in the royal family and drove Cleopatra out of Egypt. In 48 he slew Pompey who was seeking refuge in Egypt after being defeated by Caesar in a battle at Pharsalos. In March 47 drowned a ship on which Ptolemy tried to escape from Caesar’s army. No titulary is known for him.


47 - 44
Family Tree

Ptolemy XIV Philopator ( The Child )

Brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII. Upon death of Ptolemy XIII, on Caesar’s motion became nominally a ruler by marrying to Cleopatra, his brother’s widow. At that time he was about 12 years old and had no influence on rules held by Cleopatra. He died in 44 BC when poisoned probably by his own sister.


51 - 30
Family Tree

Cleopatra VII Philopater ( Loving Father )

  • wr(t) nb(t)-nfrw Ax(t)-sH
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • qlwpdrt (nTrt mr(t)-it.s)
  • nTrt mr(t) it.s

qlwpdrt (nTrt mr(t)-it.s) Cleopatra, neczeret meret ites  (The Goddess Cleopatra Who Is Beloved Of Her Father)
qlwpdrt Cleopatra
Κλεοπατρα Θεα Φιλοπατωρ Kleopatra Thea Philopator

Daughter of Ptolemy XII, sister of Kleopatra VI Tryphaine, Berenike IV, Arsinoe, Ptolemy XIII and XIV. She was 18 years old as in 51 BC she came to the throne by marrying her own brother, 13 years old Ptolemy XIII. She was very well educated, spoke many oriental languages. She got into conflict with her regency council which drove her out of Alexandria in 49 BC. Her teenaged brother, aided by three of regents: Poteinos, Achillas and Teodotos, did not let her return. As known, she regained the throne with support of Julius Caesar who played a role of arbiter between the sister and brother. Hostile attitude of Poteinos who stirred up Alexandrians and Ptolemeian army drove to Alexandrian war. It resulted in imprisoning of Ptolemy XIII, burning of Alexandrian library, and taking by Caesar the control over palace district and port with lighthouse at Faros and finally victory of tiny Roman army over the Egyptian one, counting more than 20 thousand warriors. In 47 BC Alexandria surrendered to Caesar and Kleopatra. After Ptolemy XIII’s death Kleopatra gained fullness of royal power, formally assigning Ptolemy XIV as a co-regent. In 46 BC she visited Rome where Caesar celebrated his triumph. After Ceasar’s death in March 44, Cleopatra avoided political intrigues and did not take part in struggle for rule in Rome. In April she returned to Egypt. However famous meeting with Antonius at Tarsos made Kleopatra a partisan of Marcus Antonius whom she later bore three  children: Alexandros Helios, Cleopatra Selene and Ptolemy Philadelphos. Antony was defeated by Partos. His wife Fulvia and brother Lucius set him at variance with Octavian. In aftermaths of this conflict war was unavoidable, despite Antony’s marriage with Octavia, the Octavian’s sister. In 34 BC Antonius confirmed Kleoptara’s royal power as queen of Egypt and Cyprus and accepted Ptolemy XV Caesarion which was evident politic attack against Octavian who did not recognize the son of Caesar. In 32 BC Antony was deprived of designation for office of consul as well as other leading functions. Kleopatra declared war against Rome. Strategic mistakes done by Antony, treason and desertion of legions lead to battle at Actium in 31 BC. After treason of Cyrenaica, Syria and Jewish state as well as Egyptian fleet and cavalary, Egypt was no more able to defend from Octavian’s and Gaius Gallus’s aggression. August 1, 30 BC Alexandria had been conquered. Antonius committed suicide. So did Cleoptara on 12 August 30 BC, thus giving end to the Ptolemaic Period in Egypt.  The Land of the Pharaohs became just a district of Roman Empire.


44 - 30
Family Tree

Ptolemy Caesarion
Philopater (
Loving Father ) Philometor ( Loving Mother )

  • Hr Hwnw , Hwnw-nfr , Hwnw-nfr bnr-mrwt , kA nxt iAxw-stwt-stwt-ra-iaH
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • iwa-(n)-pA-nTr-nti-nHm stp.n-ptH iri-mrt-ra (iri-mAat-ra) sxm-anx-n-imn
  • ptwlmis , kisrs , (anx-Dt mri-ptH-Ast) , ptwlmis kisrs
  • pA nTr mri it.f mwt.f

Setepenptah (Chosen Of Ptah)
iri-mAat-ra  Irimaatre (Who Brings Forth The Order Of Re)
sxm-anx-n-imn  Sekhemankhenamon  (The Living Image Of Amun)

ptwlmis kisrs Ptolemajos djed tunef kesaros (Ptolemy Called Caesar)
Πτολεμαιος Φιλοπατωρ Φιλομητωρ Καισαρ Ptolemaios Philopator Philometor Kaisar

Born on 23 June 47 BC, son of Kleopatra and Julius Caesar. Formally he ruled with his mother as Ptolemy XV Caesar, called by Alexandrians Caesarion. Proclaimed co-regent after death of Ptolemy XIV, when he was three years old. After the battle at Actium he fled to India but returned under Octavian’s instigation. Betrayed by Augustus he found death instead of the promised rule. Caesarion’s sister-and-brothers were brought up by Octavia. Kleopatra Selene was married to Juba II, the king of Mauretania, in 20 BC. Her son, the last of Ptolemys, was king of Mauretania in years 23-40 AD. In 40 AD he was executed by Kaligula.

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