of this dynasty, as well as the whole III IP, proposed by Prof.
seems to be the most reliable, although in light of D.A. Aston analyses, not
completely convincing. Generally the IX century BC is one of the less studied of
all periods of Egyptian history. It seems to me that the recent state of
knowledge, supported by dubious, often contradictory records, makes the precise
presentation of political history of the III Intermediate Period impossible. The
reason for free interpretation of facts is among other the partition of rule
among a few, more or less, powerful political centers. Potent role play Thebes
with the office of High Priest
held by high priests related to rulers of the dynasty XXII and often aspiring to
rule all over the land. Also in areas of Herakleopolis and Hermopolis in the
Central Egypt there are princes holding independent rule and they happen to be
nominated by legitimate pharaohs from Delta. To view the transcription
of kings titulary properly, please
download and install transliteration font.
HedjkheperreSetepenre(Bright Is The Manifestation
Of Re ; Chosen Of Re)
([Beloved] Of Amon)
of Bubastis descending from Libyan immigrants. The son of Nimlot and
Tanetsepeh, he overtook the rule after Psusennes II death. He was energetic
ruler who held control with support of army. He settled Nimlot, one of his
sons, at Herakleopolis to hold rule over Central Egypt in his behalf.
Later he made his second son, Iuput, the high
priest of Amun at Thebes, what actually meant re-unifying of the land. His
daughter, Tashepenbastet was married to the third prophet of Amun at Thebes.
Also for other influential offices all over the land were nominated loyal to
Sheshonq people, which efficiently removed eventual threat for royal power.
He made war expeditions to Syria and Palestine, conquered Jerusalem and some
other cities in 925 BC. Asiatic expedition of Sheshonq is object of few
speculations among modern historians and “parahistorians” that hold Bible as
the main source of information and thus warp completely history and
chronology of ancient Egypt. Building activities during Sheshonq I rule
focused mainly at Thebes, Memphis and in the Delta - at Bubastis,
of Sheshonq I by Pentreshnes.
Nimlot served as a commander of the army and is recorded as being a
great chief of the foreigners, the Meshwesh." As governor of
Hierakonpolis, Nimlot controlled Middle Egypt and the nomes of Upper
He reintroduced the custom of daily making offerings of bull in honor of
He contributed 60 Bulls to the shrine at Hierakonpolis.
(Powerful Are The Manifestations Of Re)
of Sheshonq I and Karoma I. Relatively long reign of Osorkon is a period, if
not of prosperity, then surely of economical stabilization. Many donations
in behalf of temples of Amun, Re-Horachte, Hathor, Mut, Thot and Bastet are
a good testimony for this. Building activities were run at Bubastis,
Memphis, Atfih, el-Hibe and Abydos. Osorkon I was the father of king Takelot
I and high priests of Amun - Sheshonq II, Iuwlot
Smendes (III), also
Shapenupet I, the first of the dynastic divine adorers of Amun,
women-priests holding unlimited rule at Thebes.
HeqakheperreSetepenre (The Manifestation Of Re Rules ; Chosen Of Re)
[Meri]amon (Beloved Of Amon)
of Osorkon I by Maatkare, daughter of Psusennes II.
Step-brother of Takelot I and high priests: Iuwlot
Smendes. In 924 he was made by his father the high
priest of Amon at Thebes and short before his death – nominated the coregent
and since then his name was inscribed in royal cartouche with all titles due
to the king of Lower and Upper Egypt. However Sheshonq died unexpectedly and
was succeeded by his step-brother, Takelot I. Sheshonq was the father of
high priest Horsiese. He was buried in the antechamber of the
Psusennes I tomb. His rich funerary
equipment consists of gold funerary mask, silver sarcophagus, pectorals,
amulets and other precious objects.
less known pharaoh of this dynasty and whole III Intermediate Period.
None of known to us relics can be ascribed to him. The only proof of his
existence is genealogy by priest Pasenhor in the stela of
Serapeum, dated to 37 year of
Sheshonq V rule and testifying his reign and descent - son of Osorkon I
by queen Tashedchonsu.
WesermaatreSetepenamon (Powerful Is The Justice Of Re ; Chosen Of Amon)
(Beloved Of Amon)
of Takelot by queen Kapes, father of high priest
Nimlot (II) and of king Takelot II. Osorkon built mainly at
where he extended the temple of Amun. At Bubastis he decorated temple of
Bastet, he built also in other cities of Delta (Leontopolis, Pithom) and
Memphis. His politic activities in Asia were focused on decreasing
Asirian influences in Palestine. In the battle at Karkar in 853 BC army
of Asiatic princes was supported by Egyptian contingent counting 1000
soldiers. Osorkon was buried at Tanis in the complex of the temple of
Amun (tomb V), discovered in 1939 by
870 - 860 870-860 (Grimal)
Hr kA nxt xai-m-wAst
HedjkheperreSetepenamon (Bright Is The Manifestation Of Re ; Chosen Of
Horsiese Meriamon (Horus, Son Of Isis ; Beloved Of Amon)
of Sheshonq II. Osorkon II appointed him to the post of
high priest of Amon at Thebes. Regarded as usurper
because announced himself the pharaoh of Egypt under the reign of Libyan
dynasty XXII and was supported by highly ranked Theban clans. Being de facto
ruler of Egypt, Horsiese placed his son on the Theban throne as high priest
of Amon. Horsiese’s tomb is located in the temple complex at Medinet Habu.
On his burial place only canopies, ushebti and skull of Horsiese with partly
cicatrized hole at the head, which may be due to either trepanation or
injury caused by weapon, have been preserved.
HedjkheperreSetepenre (Bright Of The Manifestation Of Re ; Chosen Of Re)
(Beloved Of Amon)
this pharaoh to any dynasty is a reason for instant arguments among
K.Kitchen opinion he was the sixth ruler of dynasty XXII while D.
Aston regards him as the first ruler of dynasty XXIII and inserts him
before Padibastet I. Moreover, he might have
been the father of
Osorkon III. Other scholars (including K.
Kitchen) do not agree with this view and regard
Osorkon, the high priest of Amon at Thebes, as the son of Takelot
II, however he would not have anything to do with king Osorkon III. Yet,
D. Aston believes they were one person so that he identifies the high
priest Osorkon with the king Osorkon III. A few objects belonging to
Takelot survived up to now, but there are no buildings erected by him.
In K. Kitchen opinion Takelot II was buried in antechamber of his
father’s tomb, Osorkon III, however D. Aston point of view is different.
The Justice Of Re ;
Chosen Of Re)
Sheshonq [Meri]Amon ([Beloved] Of Amon)
of Takelot II by Karoma III. For unknown reasons he accepted
Padibastet I as equal to him king of Egypt,
additionally there were rulers of both dynasties, XXII and XXIII,
reigning in Central Egypt. Also in the Delta territorial split into many
principalities became remarkable. From the 49 year of this pharaoh’s
rule come records of a famine. After long reign of Sheshonq remained
numerous buildings in the Delta. In 1939 P. Montet discovered tomb NRT-5 of Sheshonq at
Wesermaatre(Powerful Is The Justice Of Re ;
Setepenamon (Chosen Of Amon)
of Sheshonq III and Tentamenopet, brother of Bakennefi, the prince and
regent of Athribis and Heliopolis. A few relics are preserved only in
the Delta. Group statue from Sais presents him in times before he came
to the rule and names him “Governor of Libyans -
Meshwesh”. It is possible that he was buried in tomb II in royal
necropolis at Tanis.
Aakheperre (Great Is
The Manifestation Of Re)
and successor of Pami, as disclosed by stela of
Serapeum, dated to the year 11 of
his rule. There is no consensus as to definite ascribing this ruler to
dynasty XXII or XXIII. In D. Aston opinion he would be the fourth or
fifth ruler of dynasty XXIII and predecessor of Padibastet II. While
Sheshonq reigned in the south, rule at Thebes was held by dynasty XXIII
and kings-high priests Osorkon III and
Takelot III, as well as
at Leontopolis. It is possible that before Sheshonq seized rule after his
father’s death, he might have been high priest of Amun at
AakheperureMeriamon (Great Is The Manifestation Of Re ; Beloved Of Re)
OsorkonMeryamun (Beloved Of
of Sheshonq V (or Pedubast II) by queen Tadibastet II. Osorkon’s reign falls on a period
when Egypt was ruled simultaneously by four dynasties. Thus, dynasty
XXIII is represented by Iuput II and
Sheshonq VI, XXIV dynasty at Sais is represented
by Tefnakht and Bakenrenef,
Kushite dynasty XXV –
Shabaka. Short after Osorkon had ascended the
throne, Egypt was conquered by Kushite king, Piankhi. End of the rule
coincides with invasion of Asirians in Asia. In 716 Sargon II reaches as
far as to el-Arish by the Palestine-Egyptian borders.