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to IV dynasty

Vth Dynasty 2484 - 2336
( Memphis )

Dynasty V does not appear a continuation of the preceding royal lineage, although an opinion of a link between both dynasties in the form of queen Khentkawes, daughter of Menkaure, is very probable. With no doubt we have to do with a triumph of Heliopolitan theology. A later story based on historical events describes circumstances of birth of three first kings of the Dynasty V. They were supposed to be sons of the god Re from a village of Sakhebu near Heliopolis by Raweser, wife of Redjdjeded, one of priests worshipping the primeval god Re. Under the Dynasty V the solar cult gained much importance and the rulers, starting with Sahure, assume the name of sA-ra - Son of Re. Pyramids, no more as monumental as under the preceding Dynasty, were built in the close neighborhood of solar temples. Expeditions to Sinai and Asia, as well as to Libya and Nubia were sent as previously.
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2484 - 2477
2513-2506 (Redford)
2494-2487 (Shaw)
2479-2471 (von Beckerath)
2471-2464 (Dodson)

2465-2458 (Allen)
2454-2447 (Malek)
2435-2429 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree


  • Hr iri-mAat
  • iri-mAat-nbti
  • nTr-nbw nfr
  • ... ...
  • wsr-kA.f (Aby.26) , [wsr]-kA-[ra] (Tur.3.17) , Usercheres (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr ir mAat
Horus Irimaat
(Horus, Who Does What Is Right)

(Nebti Name)


nb.ti ir mAat
Nebti Irimaat
(The Two Ladies, Who Does What Is Right)

(Golden Horus Name)


nfr bik nbw
Nefer Bik Nebu
(The Golden Falcon Is Perfect)

Abydos Table
(Nomen & Prenomen)


wsr kA.f 
(His Ka Is Strong)

He was of non-royal descent. He acquired right to the throne by marrying the daughter of Menkaure, the princess Khentkawes, and additionally by deriving his origin of the god Re and introducing to royal protocol title of sA-ra – Son of Re. It is believed that he was father of kings Sahure and Neferirkare, succeeding him on the throne. Another view, being in concordance with a story of Westcar papyrus is represented by W. Helck and R. Stadelmann. They assume that three first rulers of dynasty V were brothers, sons of queen Khentkawes. Palermo Stone mentions events of years 2-7 of Userkaf’s rule. Burial place – pyramid at Saqqara.   Turin Canon says about 7 years of rule while according to Manethon Userkaf ruled 28 years. Palermo Stone mentions some events at 2-7 years of his rule, among others building of tomb structure at Sakkara, offerings and bestowing of landed estates, building of chapels, foundations. He erected solar temple at Abusir thus developing and strengthening cult of Re.


2477 - 2463
2506-2492 (Redford)
2487-2475 (Shaw)
2471-2458 (von Beckerath)
2464-2452 (Dodson)

2458-2446 (Allen)
2447-2435 (Malek)

2428-2416 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
Family Tree


  • Hr nb-xaw
  • nb-xaw-nbti
  • nTrwi-nbw , bikAw-nbw
  • ... ...
  • sAHw-ra (Aby.27) , Sefres (Man)
(Horus Name)


Hr nb xaw
Horus Nebkhau
(Horus, The Lord Of Apparitions)

(Nebti Name)


nb.ti nb xaw
Nebti Nebkhau
(The Two Ladies, The Lord Of Apparitions)

(Golden Horus Name)  

bik(w) nbw
u (The Two Golden Falcons)

Abydos Table
Nomen & Prenomen)
  sAHw ra 
(He Who Is Close To Re)

Elder brother of Neferirkare, son of queen Khentkawes I and presumably Weserkaf – the founder of the dynasty. Turin Canon mentions 12 years of reign while Palermo Stone in two-year cycle – a total of 14 years, Manetho in turn gives him 13 years of rule. Expeditions into Sinai and the land of Punt are documented in Palermo Stone, reliefs and texts on stone blocks. It is known a fact of exploitation of diorite quarries near Abu Simbel. Burial place of the ruler became the funerary complex with a 50 m high pyramid at Abusir. Moreover the complex was composed of: finely decorated mortuary temple, cult pyramid, ramp leading to relatively well preserved lower temple.


2463 - 2453
2492-2482 (Redford)
2475-2455 (Shaw)
2458-2438 (von Beckerath)
2452-2442 (Dodson)

2446-2438 (Allen)
2415-2405 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree

Neferirkare I Kakai

  • Hr wsr-xaw
  • xai-m-nbti , wsr-xaw-nbti
  • sxmw-nbw
  • nfr-ir-kA-ra
  • kAkAi (Aby.28) , Nefercheres(Man)
(Horus Name)  

Hr wsr xaw
Horus Weserkhau
(Horus, The Force That Has Appeared)

(Nebti Name)  

nb.ti wsr xaw
Nebti Wserkhaw
(The One Who Appears With The Two Ladies)

nb.ti xa m
Nebti Kauem (Two Ladies, Strong Of Apparitions)

(Golden Horus Name)  

sxm.w nbw
(The Golden Powers)

(Prenomen)   nfr ir kA ra 
(Beautiful Is All The Soul Of Re)
Abydos Table
(Re Has Appeared)

Brother of Sahure, son of queen Khentkawes I and presumably Weserkaf, the founder of the dynasty. As annals in Palermo Stone end up with Neferirkare’s rule it has been suggested that they might have been compiled under his rule. Burial place of the king was pyramid at Abusir, designed initially as 6-step pyramid 52 m high, but later it was extended to the form of typical pyramid and it reached height of 72 m. Mortuary complex is unfinished, only part of lower mortuary temple was completed before, as supposed, abandoning the project.


2453 - 2446
2482-2475 (Redford)
2455-2448 (Shaw)
2442-2435 (Dodson)
2438-2431 (Allen, von Beckerath)
2425-2418 (Malek)
2403 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)


  • Hr sxm-xaw
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • [Sp]ss-kA-[ra] , Spss-kA-ra (Sak.28)
  • nTr(?)-wsr(w) , Sisires (Man)
(Horus Name)  

Hr sxm xaw
Horus Sekhemkhaw
(Horus, The Power That Has Appeared)

(Nomen)   wsr nTr 
(The Strong One Of The God)

Spss kA ra
(Noble Is The Soul Of Re)

Both Turin Canon and Manetho give to this king seven years of rule. Artifacts of these times are: a scarab, two cylinder seals and four clay sealings from Abusir, where also the king must have been buried. Stadelmann ascribed to him a dig-out under pyramid north of Sahure’s one.


2446 - 2443
2475-2474 (Redford)
2448-2445 (Shaw)
2435-2432 (Dodson)
2431-2420 (Allen, von Beckerath)
2418-2408 (Malek)
2404 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree

Neferefre ( Reneferef )

  • Hr nfr-xaw
  • nfr-m-nbti
  • nfr-bik-nbw , nft-bik-nbw nfr
  • nfr.f-ra (Aby.29) , xai-nfr-ra (Sak.29)
  • isi ,Cheres (Man)
(Horus Name)  

Hr nfr xaw
Horus Neferkhaw
(Horus, Beautiful Of Apparitions)

(Nebti Name)  

nb.ti nfr m
Nefer-em Nebti
(The One Who Is Beautiful With The Two Ladies)

(Golden Horus Name)  

nTr nbw nfr
Nefer Bik-Nebw
(The Golden Falcon Is Beautiful)

Abydos Table

nfr=f ra
(Beautiful Is Re)


(Re Has Appeared, Strong of Heart)


nfr xai ra
(The Soul Of Re Is Beautiful)

Son of pharaoh Neferirkare by queen Khentkawes II, brother of Niuserre. His seven years of rule, as assigned to him by Turin Canon, seems to be overestimated. He could not have ruled more than 2-3 years. Premature death of the king made his successor complete hastily building works on pyramid at Abusir which finally acquired a form of mastaba. Also all other buildings of Neferefre’s mortuary complex were erected under Niuserre’s rule. While exploring ruins of the mortuary complex Czech archeological mission discovered among others papyri of temple accounts, statues of the king, decorated plates and many seal prints. In 1980, Czech archaeologists found five small fragments of human bones in the eastern half of the burial chamber. Survey have shown that these are the remains of a man aged 20-23, probably pharaoh Neferefre, and fragments of a red granite sarcophagus.


2443 - 2418
2474-2444 (Redford)
2445-2421 (Shaw)
2432-2421 (Dodson)
2420-2380 (von Beckerath)
2420-2389 (Allen)

2408-2377 (Malek)
2402-2374 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree

Niuserre ( Niuserre Ini )

  • Hr st-ib-tawi
  • st-ib-nbti
  • nTri-bik-nbw (bik-nbw nTri)
  • ni-wsr-ra (Aby.30) , (sA-ra , nTr aA , nb-tAwi)
  • ini , Rathures (Man)
(Horus Name)  

Hr s.t-ib tA.wi
Horus Setibtawi
(Horus, Whose Favorite Place Are Both Lands)

(Nebti Name)  

s.t-ib nb.ti
Setib Nebti
(The Favorite Of The Two Ladies)

(Golden Horus Name)  

sbik nbw nTr(i)
Bik-Nebw Netjer(i)
(The Golden Horus Is Divine)

Abydos Table

n(i) wsr ra
(Possessed Of Re's Power)

(Nomen)   iny

Son of pharaoh Neferirkare by queen Khentkawes II, brother of Neferefre. Turin Canon gives 25 years of rule to him. Burial place – pyramid at Abusir located between those of Sahure and Neferirkare. Its initial height was ca. 50 m, length of the side at base 79 m and angle of the slope 52o.  In the neighborhood was buried also wife of the ruler, queen Reput-Nebu. At Abu Gurab he built magnificent temple of solar cult, called Joy of Re. The temple had been crowned with characteristic, 36 m high obelisk placed on 20 m base. War campaigns to Libya and Asia are mentioned in documents of that period however no other evidence of war activities of this ruler are known to us.


2418 - 2410
2444-2436 (Redford)
2421-2414 (Shaw)
2421-2413 (Dodson)

2389-2380 (von Beckerath)
2389-2381 (Allen)
2373-2366 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)
Family Tree


  • Hr mn-xaw
  • bik-nbw HD
  • ... ...
  • mn-kAw-Hr (Aby.31) , mn-kA-Hr (Sak.30, Tur.3.23)
  • ikAw , Hr-ikAw , Mencheres(Man)
(Horus Name)


Hr mn xa.w
Horus Menkhaw
(Horus, Stable Of Apparition)

(Golden Horus Name)  

bik nbw HD
Bik-Nebw Hedj
(The Golden Horus Shines )

Abydos Table


mn kA.w Hr
(Eternal Like The Souls Of Horus)



ikA.w Hr 

(Re Has Appeared)

Saqqara Table
mn kA.w Hr 
(Eternal Like The Souls Of Horus)
Turin Canon

Turin Canon assigns to him 8 years of rule. Burial place of the ruler has not been localized to date. Possibly it was either pyramid at Dahshur, located north-east of the Red Pyramid of Snofru or so called “headless” pyramid in northern Saqqara. King Mankauhor with certainty was worshipped during the New Kingdom.


2410 - 2366
2436-2404 (Redford)
2414-2375 (Shaw)
2413-2385 (Dodson)

2380-2342 (von Beckerath)
2369-2341 (Malek)
2381-2353 (Allen)
2365-2322 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree

Djedkare Isesi

  • Hr Dd-xaw
  • Dd-xaw-nbti
  • bik-nbw Dd
  • Dd-kA-ra (Aby.32) , mAa-kA-ra (Sak.31) , Dd[-kA-ra] (Tur.3.24)
  • issi , iss , Tancheres (Man)
(Horus Name)  

Hr Dd xa.w
orus Djed Kau
(Horus, Firm Of Apparitions)

(Nebti Name)  

nb.ti Dd xa.w
Nebti Djed Kau
(The Two Ladies, Who Is Firm Of Apparitions )

(Golden Horus Name)  

Dd bik nbw
Bik-Nebw Djed
(The Golden Horus Is Firm)

Abydos Table

Dd kA ra
(The Soul Of Re Endures)

(Nomen)   issi
Saqqara Table
mAa.t kA ra 
(Nomen) issi
Turin Canon

The king’s name is found in biographic inscription of a tomb of Senedjemib, the overseer of building works who was responsible for erecting the ruler’s funerary complex. He is also mentioned in introduction to the Precepts of Ptahhotep dedicated to the king, as well as in the Royal List of Karnak. Turin Canon gives 28 years of rule, Manetho – 44. Information coming from population registers (performed every 2 years) comprise 21 register (papyrus of Abusir) and, based on recently discovered inscription in mastaba of Idu at Abusir, 14 register of population. Burial place – pyramid at Saqqara. Traces of his rule were found at Wadi Maghara in Sinai and Nubia (Wadi Halfa, Toshka, Buhen). Son of the ruler and his heir to the throne was prince Remkwi, who died prematurely before Unas ascended the throne; his daughters were: Khemerernebti and Hedjetnebu.


2366 - 2336
2404-2374 (Redford)
2385-2355 (Dodson)

2375-2345 (Shaw)
2342-2322 (von Beckerath)
2341-2311 (Malek)
2353-2323 (Allen)
2321-2306 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)

Family Tree

Unas ( Wenis )

  • Hr wAD-tAwi
  • wAD-m-nbti
  • wAD-bik-nbw (bik-nbw-wAD)
  • ... ...
  • sA-ra wnis , wnis (Aby.33, Sak.32, Tur.3.25) , Onnos (Man)
(Horus Name)  

Hr wAD tA.wi
Horus Wadjtawi
(Horus, The Flourishing One Of The Two Lands)

(Nebti Name)  

wAD m nb.ti
Nebti Wadj-em
(The One Who Flourishes With The Two Ladies)

(Golden Horus Name)  

wAD bik nbw
Bik-Nebw Wadj
(The Golden Horus Who Flourishes)


sA ra wnis
Sa Ra Unas
(Unas, Son Of Re)

Abydos Table
Saqqara Table
Papirus z Turynu
(Prenomen i Nomen)

He ruled 30 years according to Turin Canon , or 33 according to Manetho. He had two wives, queen Nebet, the mother of prince Wenisankh, and queen Khenut, presumably the mother of princess Iput who later was married to pharaoh Teti, the first ruler of dynasty VI. Trade contacts with Asiatic cities became at those times a tradition, also facts of war expeditions against Bedouins Shasu are known. Burial place of the ruler – pyramid in west-south Saqqara. Unis’ ancestors are not known. He might have to do something with king Djedkare, however this hypothesis is not built on strong base. It is known that Unis’ wives originated from royal families. J. Ph. Lauer places Unis at the beginning of the next, VIth dynasty and thus ranking him as its founder

to IV dynasty

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