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to II dynasty

IIIrd Dynasty 2727 - 2655
( Memphis )

Royal authority established during the Archaic Period, at the beginning of the Old Kingdom resulted in an increase of Egyptian Empire. The sequence of the IIIrd Dynasty rulers, although very probable, is not completely certain. Actually, only the pharaoh Djoser-Neterierkhet is well known to us. Scholars’ opinions vary as to the beginnings of this dynasty. It is known to us a Horus name sA discovered on stone jars from Djoser’s pyramid. Some egyptolgists (P. Kaplony, D. Wildung, J von Beckerath) assign this name to Sanakht, other (W. Helck) regard it as a Horus name of Weneg of dynasty II. Most reasonable seems to be the theory of J. Vercoutter identifying Horus Sanakht with king Nebka. To him should also be ascribed the abovementioned Horus name Hr sA. All in all it seems that dynasty III overtook the rule without problems. With no doubt the list of pharaohs of dynasties II-III is still not complete and unfinished royal tomb structure Gisr el-Mudir in western Saqqara that N. Swelim assigned to king Sa would support this thesis.
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2727 - 2709
2688-2682 (Redford)
2686-2667 (Shaw)
2682-2665 (von Beckerath)
2649 - 2630 (Allen)
2647-2628 (Malek)


  • Hr sA-n-xt , sA-(nxt ?)
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • nb-kA (Aby.15, Tur.3.4) , Necherochis (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr sA-n-xt
Horus Sanakht
(The Victorious Protector)

Hr sA
Horus Sanakht
(The Protector)

Abydos Table
Turin Canon


(Lord Of The Ka)


Turin Canon assigns to him 19 years of rule. It is generally believed that he was both elder brother and brother-in-law of Djoser. Nebka’s wife was Initkaes – daughter of Khasekhemui by Nimaathapi. Some scholars believe that Horus Sanacht and king Nebka were two different pharaohs of this dynasty. The Palermo Stone mentions building of a temple in year 13 of his rule, statue of Khasekhemui in year 16 and construction of a ship in year 18. Many seal-prints are preserved which belonged to Nebka. His burial place is possibly either the mud-brick structure surrounded with brick-wall at Abu Rawash, or - according to W. Helck – unfinished funerary complex west of the Djoser’ Temple.

Fragment of sandstone relief from the Wadi Maghara in Sinai. British Museum.


2709 - 2690
2687-2668 (Redford)
2667-2648 (Shaw)
2665-2645 (von Beckerath)
2630 -2611 (Allen)
2628-2609 (Malek)
2592-2544 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)


  • Hr nTri-Xt
  • nTri-Xt-nbti
  • bik-nbw
  • ... ...
  • ...-Dsr sA (Aby.16) , Dsr (Sak.12) , Dsr-it (?) (Tur.3.5) , nbw-Dsr (?) , nTr(?)-Ht-Dsr , Tosorthros (Sesorthos) (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr nTri-X.t
Netjererkhet (Divine Of Body)

(Nebti Name)

nb.ti nTr(i)-Xt
Nebti Netjererkhet
(The Two Ladies, Divine Of Body)

(Golden Horus Name)   

nbw Nebu (The Golden One)
nbw Nebu (The Golden One)
bk nbw Bik-Nebu (The Golden Falcon)

Abydos Table

... Dsr sA
Djoser Sa

Saqqara Table




Djoser Nebu
(Golden Djoser)

nTr(i)-X.t Dsr
Netjerierkhet Djoser

Dsr-it ...
Djoser It

The name of Djoser appears only in times of dynasty XII. Today with no doubt he is identified with Hor Netjererkhet, known thanks to numerous relics. He was the son (or brother) of Khasekemwi, might have been also younger brother of Sanakht (Vercoutter) or his son (Beckerath and Grimal). According to W. Helck, Djoser was Khasekhemwi’s son-in-law by his marriage with Hetephernebti. At the beginning of his rule he resided near Abydos where he started building of a tomb at Bet Challaf. However later on he moved the capital near Memphis. His vizier and architect – Imhothep – built for him at Sakkara the first monumental stone building – the Step Pyramid. He made expeditions to Sinai and according to “stela of hunger”, the rock inscription on the island of Sehel dated to the Ptolemaic Period (Ptolemy V) and referring to a hardship which affected Egypt during the dynasty III, he conquered Nubia or at least part of it. Turin Canon assigns to Djoser 19 years and 1 month, while Manetho – 29 years of rule.


2690 - 2684
2648-2640 (Shaw)
2645-2638 (von Beckerath)
2611-2605 (Allen)
2592-2566 (Hornung, Krauss, Warburton)


  • Hr sxm-Xt
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • tti (Aby.17) , Dsr-tti (Saq.13) , Dsr-ti (Tur.3.6) , Dsr-itt , itti , Tyreis (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr sxm-Xt
Sekhemkhet (Horus Powerful Of Body)

Saqqara Table


dsr tti

Abydos Table



Dsr tti
Djoser Teti


Turin Canon assigns to him 6 years of rule. His name is found on two rock reliefs at Wadi Maghara at Synai. Inscription on an ivory plate coming from area of Sekhemkhet’s pyramid contains a name that is variously interpreted by different scholars. N. Swelim believes it is the Nebti name and should be read as Djeseti-ankh. R. Stadelman in turn claims it is a name of queen Djesernebti-ankh while in opinion of W. Helck it is neme of queen Djeseretnebti. He started building so called „unfinished” pyramid at Saqqara which size was supposed to match the one erected by his predecessor – Djoser. After death he was worshipped and cult of Sekhemkhet can be traced up to the Late Period or even as late as to the Ptolemaic Period.

Ruin of pyramid of Sekhemkhet.

Relief in the Wadi Maghara. The deep sloping trench on the north face of the unfinished pyramid leads down to the pyramid entrance.



'Hudjefa' (b)

  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • Hw-DfA (Tur.3.7) , sDs (Aby.18)
Turin Canon


Abydos Table


In Turin Canon it is a misinterpretation of unreadable name. Table of Abydos includes a form Sedjes. Both of them were formed from a mark that primary royal names have been recognized as destructed and unreadable.


2684 - 2679
2679-2673 (Redford)
2640-2637 (Shaw)
2638-2614 (von Beckerath)
2605-2599 (Allen)


  • Hr xai-bA
  • nTr-nbw
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • nfr-kA-ra (Aby.19) , nb-kA-ra (Sak.14) , Mesochris (Man)
(Horus Name)

Hr xa-bA
Horus Khaba
(The Ba[Soul] Appears)     

Abydos Table

(Beautiful Soul [Ka] Of Re)

Saqqara Table

(Lord Of Ka, Re)

Turin Canon assigns to him a rule of 6 years. It is believed that Hor Khaba and Neferkare were two distinct rulers of this dynasty and that Khaba was identified with Nebka, the first ruler of this dynasty. In 1985 there was a cylinder  seal-print of Khaba discovered on Elephantine. He might have been the builder of the south pyramid at Zawijet el-Aryan, the one, although never completed, became probably burial place of the ruler.


Ruin of Khaba's pyramid.


2679 - 2655
2673-2649 (Redford)
2637-2613 (Shaw)

2599 - 2575 (Allen)
2597-2573 (Malek)

Tablica genealogiczna


  • Hr qAi-HD...t
  • Hw(i)
  • ... ...
  • ... ...
  • niswt Hwi , nsw Hw , Hwni(Sak.15, Tur.3.8) , Aches (Man)

nsw Hw
Niswt Hui
(King Hu)

Turin Canon

(The Smiter)

Saqqara Table

Turin Canon gives 24 years (of rule?). Apart from Table of Saqqara he is also mentioned in papyri with precepts of Kagemni and Ptahhotep. In the Museum of Louvre there is E25982 stele presenting Hr qAi-HD...t (Hor Kaihedjet) together with god Horus, in J. Vandier’s opinion Horus NameThe One with Great White Crown belonged just to the king Huni. Presumably he was an owner of seven small step pyramids at Edfu, Abu Rawash, Sinki, Nagada, Zawijet el-Matijtin, el-Kuhla and on Elephantine where he also erected fortresses as confirmed by artifacts bearing his name. His wife, queen Meresankh I was the mother of Snofru. He held the rule supported by vizier Kagemni. Burial place – presumably pyramid at Maidum, ascribed to his son, the pharaoh Snofru.

to II dynasty

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